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University of Newcastle Library guides

APA 7th Style:  Health resources

UON Library guide for the APA 7th referencing style

Health resources

For resources such as:

see below.  Otherwise, use the tabs to access the required resources.

General Notes:

  • List the title of the entry (or topic) as the first element in the reference if there is no author.  Author information may be listed on the first page of the entry or under a section called 'Contributors' (or similar).

  • Titles of these entries are not italicised, but you will need to italicise the source database.

  • Include the year of the last update in brackets.  If there is no update year listed, use the copyright year.  This information may be included at the top or bottom of the screen.

  • These entries require the words 'Retrieved from' with a viewing date before the access link.  This is because the content may be updated over time.

  • Remove the university proxy information from the URL where possible [e.g. use https://bestpractice.bmj.com NOT https://bestpractice-bmj-com.ezproxy.newcastle.edu.au ] 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Entry authored by a person

Entry with no author

 

Reference list examples:

undefined

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns: 

For an entry with an author: (Author Surname, Year)  or 

For an entry with no author, use the first few words of the title: ("Title," Year)

 

Examples:

Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Santos et al., 2019).

...adjunct to diet in treatment of hypercholesterolaemia ("Lipitor," 2020).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a paragraph reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“This family of drugs is absorbed well via the skin” (Acciari, 2020, para. 6).

You can also use a section heading if required, e.g.:

“This family of drugs is absorbed well via the skin” (Acciari, 2020, Usage section, para. 6).

Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) resources

JBI includes resources such as:

  • Systematic reviews and protocols
  • Best practice information sheets
  • Recommended practices
  • Evidence summaries

For JBI critical appraisal tools, see the page for Critical appraisal tools.

For non-JBI systematic reviews, see the tab on this page for Cochrane Library, or visit the page for Journal articles.

General Notes:

  • Some JBI resources have individual authors, while others are written by JBI as a corporate author.

  • Some JBI resources will need a description in square brackets after the title as it is not clear from the citation, e.g. [Recommended practice], [Evidence summary].

  • Always double-check the name and access details of the particular JBI database resource you're citing. Where this is not clear, use the title of the database as found on the document.

  • Some of the JBI resources below include a document number.  This can be identified from the landing page (the accession number) or from the "how to cite" section at the bottom of each document.

  • If a resource is assigned a DOI, this alphanumeric sequence is required to be added to the reference. Check the What are DOIs? page for more information.

  • Do not include a full-stop after the DOI at the end of systematic review or protocol references.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

JBI Systematic reviews or protocols

JBI Best practice information sheets
JBI Recommended practices
JBI Evidence summaries

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns: 

For an entry with an author: (Author Surname, Year)  or 

For an entry with JBI as the author: (Joanna Briggs Institute, Year)

 

Examples:

Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Santos et al., 2019).

...adjunct to diet in treatment of hypercholesterolaemia (Joanna Briggs Institute, 2020).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a page or paragraph reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“Cleansing the area is essential” (Joanna Briggs Institute, 2020, p. 2).

“This family of drugs is absorbed well via the skin” (Acciari, 2020, para. 6).

You can also use a section heading if required, e.g.:

“This family of drugs is absorbed well via the skin” (Acciari, 2020, Usage section, para. 6).

Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Protocols

 

General Notes:

  • While the database is now tebds to be known as 'Cochrane Library', citations should use 'Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews' as the preferred source.

  • Cochrane Protocols should have the description [Protocol] added after the title.

  • If a resource is assigned a DOI, this alphanumeric sequence is required to be added to the reference. Check the What are DOIs? page for more information.

  • Do not include a full-stop after the DOI at the end of systematic review or protocol references.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

  • For non-Cochrane systematic reviews, see the tab on this page for Joanna Briggs Institute, or visit the page for Journal articles.

Cochrane Systematic reviews

Cochrane Systematic review protocols

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general pattern for the number of authors.  For examples shown shown above, we would use the 'more than 3 authors' rule:

(Bain et al., 2014)

(Roy et al., 2011)

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a page reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“Cleansing the area is essential” (Briggs et al., 2020, p. 2)

PROSPERO Systematic Review Protocols

 

General Notes:

  • PROSPERO is a database of prospectively registered systematic reviews in health and social care.  It aims to help avoid unplanned duplication and enable comparison of reported review methods with what was planned in the protocol (Source).

  • Information on this page is based on the formatting of Cochrane Reviews/Protocols, considering other APA standards to create a suitable citation. There are, as yet, no official APA guidelines for PROSPERO protocols.

  • Protocols should have the description [Protocol] added after the title.

  • As the protocol number is included in the access link, it is not necessary to repeat this information.

  • PROSPERO Protocols may receive a DOI when complete. If a DOI is listed, this should be used in the citation.  Check the What are DOIs? page for more information.

  • Do not include a full-stop after the link at the end of protocol references.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

  • PROSPERO also lists Cochrane Protocols, including their Cochrane Library link. It is recommended to access and cite the official protocol through Cochrane Library as this is the version of record.  See the Cochrane Library tab on this page for more.

PROSPERO protocols (no DOI)

PROSPERO protocols (with DOI)

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general pattern for the number of authors.  For examples shown shown above, we would use the 'more than 3 authors' rule:

(Ospina et al., 2011)

(Uthman et al., 2015)

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a page reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“Cleansing the area is essential” (Briggs et al., 2020, p. 2)

Critical Appraisal Tools

 

There are a number of critical appraisal tools that are designed to be used when reading and evaluating research and clinical studies.

See the page for Critical Appraisal Tools.

 

For guidance on critical appraisal see our EBP for Undergrads guide.

 

Documents from intranet locations

 

General Notes:

  • Electronic documents viewed while on placement or at work may only be available via a secured intranet or staff-only network location.

  • APA suggests considering the readership of the document you're writing before referencing this material - will the person reading your document being able to access the material you're citing?  This will direct you to which pattern to follow.

  • Where the type of document is not obvious, you may need to add a description in square brackets after the title, e.g. [Staff information sheet].

  • Note that the examples listed below are for illustration purposes only and are not taken from actual documents.

Intranet document available to your reader/s

The link used should be for the log-in page.

Intranet document unavailable to your reader/s

Reference as a personal communication

No reference list entry, but make reference to the type of document in your text (see example below).

 

Reference list examples:

For a resource available to your reader/s

For a resource not available to your reader/s

No reference list entry.


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.


Where the reader will be able to access the document you are citing, follow the general pattern for the number of authors.

 

Where the reader will be unable to access the document you are citing, you can follow the pattern below:

(Initial. Author Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)  or

(Corporate Author, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

It is suggested in the staff-intranet document Avoiding Patient Issues that ... (Manning Education Centre, personal communication, May 5, 2019).

Difficult-to-reference textbooks

 

For advice on how to reference chapters from 'difficult' textbooks such as:

  • Kozier and Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing (Australian Edition) [catalogue link] and 
  • LeMone and Burke's Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking for Person-Centred Care (Australian Edition) [catalogue link]

see the Book chapters page for more information.

 

For other textbooks with clear authors or editors see the information on the pages for Books and/or Book chapters.

Pamphlets and brochures (print)

 

General Notes:

  • Pamphlet versus Brochure? Pamphlets are usually a single page that has been folded, whereas brochures are multiple pages that have been bound with staples, glue, etc.

  • If you cannot locate a date on the document use the abbreviation (n.d.) in place of the year.

  • Titles of print documents should always be italicised.

  • Provide a description of kind of document in square brackets after the title to assist the reader in identifying the source, e.g. [Brochure], [Pamphlet].

  • Publisher information is now required for all print works, regardless of format.  This is a major revision for APA 7.  Where the author and the publisher are the same, leave out the publisher information to avoid repetition.
  • Place of publication is no longer required.  This is a major revision for APA 7.
Print document authored by a person

Print document with a corporate author

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns:  (Author Surname, Year)  or  (Corporate Author, Year)

Examples:

... presents risk factors for cardiovascular disease (Santos, 2019).

NSW Health (2020) suggest that proper hand-washing is the best option.

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a page or paragraph reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“This family of drugs is absorbed well via the skin” (Acciari, 2020, para. 6).

You can also use a section heading if required, e.g.:

“Cleansing the area is essential” (Joanna Briggs Institute, 2020, p. 2).

“This family of drugs is absorbed well via the skin” (Acciari, 2020, Usage section, para. 6).

NSW Health forms and screening checklists

 

General Notes:

  • NSW Health makes a large number of patient forms and screening checklists available online.  These can be referenced in a similar way to other online documents written by a corporate author.

  • Most will not include a year (the '2012' noted on the left-hand side refers to the Australian Standard for hole-punching that is being quoted: "Holes Punched as per AS2828.1: 2012").
  • Titles can usually be located towards the top-left of each document.  Titles of online documents should always be italicised.
  • Add the document number in brackets after the title (remove italics from this part).  You can find this in the bottom-right corner of the first page.
  • Online documents are considered 'static' by APA standards and therefore do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

NSW Health form or checklist

 

Reference list example:

 

Where more than one form/checklist is needed for referencing, refer to the information under Year/Date on the Reference list page of this guide (reference examples provided below).

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general pattern:  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

...should be discussed with an available paediatrician (NSW Health, n.d.).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a page reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“Medical photography of injuries is recommended” (NSW Health, n.d., p. 2).

Need to reference more than one form in-text?  See the tab for Same author/s and same year on the page for In-text Citations


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UON Referencing Guide