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University of Newcastle Library guides

APA 7th Style:  Articles

UON Library guide for the APA 7th referencing style

Journal articles

General rules:

Author Names
  • Appear first in the reference, surname first followed by a comma, then initials (do not include the full first names of authors).
  • Include all author names in the reference list when an article has up to 20 authors.
  • When authors number 21 or more, list the first 19 authors, insert three ellipses points (. . .), then add the last author.
  • If the article does not have an author move the title to the author position, before the year of publication. End with a full-stop.
Article Titles
  • Capitalise the first word of the title and sub-title (and any proper nouns).
Journal Titles
  • Capitalise all words in the journal title (except for common words - of, and, etc).
  • Journal titles appear in full (not abbreviated), and in italics.
Volume
  • Volume numbers appear in italics immediately following the journal title and a comma.
Issue Number
  • Issue numbers should be included where provided.
  • If there is an article number listed (see the 'Article numbers' section below) there will not be an issue number.
  • If there is no obvious issue number (and no article number), check the journal home page or database. If you can confirm that no issue is listed, only include the volume number and skip the issue.
Page Numbers
  • APA requires the complete page range of articles to be included in the reference list entry (e.g. 353-367, not just the starting page of 353).
  • If your article has non-consecutive page numbers (e.g. due to the structure of the journal or advertising, etc.), use only the pages relating to your article and skip the others in between (e.g. Journal of Stuff, 100(1), 31-36, 38).
Article numbers
  • Some articles from online-only journals are not assigned unique issue or page numbers and are given an article number instead. APA 7 nows allows for use of these article numbers.
  • As an example, if the article is listed as "Volume 8 Article 99", the page numbering is usually shown as "Page 1 of 8", "Page 2 of 8", and so on. In this case we would use the article number instead of the page range (e.g. Journal of Healthcare, 8, Article 99).
  • To direct quote from an article that has an article number, use the page numbering from the document in your in-text citations (e.g. for information taken from "Page 3 of 8", use 'p. 3' for the direct quote).
Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)
  • Most individual articles are assigned an identifying "digital object identifier" or DOI. If a resource is assigned a DOI, this alphanumeric sequence is required to be added to the reference. Check the What are DOIs? page for more information.

  • For formatting purposes, DOIs must be formatted in APA 7 references as the link version, e.g. "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.03.029".

  • Do not include a full-stop after the DOI at the end of the reference.

Access URLs
  • APA 7 does not require a URL for articles accessed from databases such as ScienceDirect, Informit, ProQuest, EBSCO, etc.  You must include the DOI where one is listed (see above).
  • Where articles are from journals that are not from a database, you should add an access link to the article.  For example, The Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal is hosted by the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation on their website - accessing it this way, it is not part of a database.  In this case you would need to include the access URL.  Please note that if a DOI is provided for the article, you must use the DOI instead (see above).
  • APA 7 does not require the words "Retrieved from" before journal article access links.

References within articles

 

In your research you will often encounter articles that refer to another researcher's work. This source within a source is known as a 'secondary source' and is referenced in a particular way.

Where possible, you should try to obtain the original work being referenced and read through the research to form your own opinions.

Often, however, it is impossible to obtain the original publication - it may be published in another language, or in a book or journal which is difficult to access.

In these circumstances, you are permitted to include a citation to the secondary source.

For more information on how to reference these resources see the page on Secondary sources.

Journal articles with no author listed

 

Move the Title up to the author position:

Article with a DOI (print or electronic)

Article from a library or database (with no DOI)

Do not include an access link

Article found on the web (with no DOI)

Print article (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has no author:  ("Article Title," Year)

Note that the comma is enclosed by the double-quote marks, not after them.

 

If the title is long, you can shorten it for use in the in-text citation.

Example:

Consumers are being more active in managing their health ("Australians Turning to Dr Google," 2016).

Note that the title is capitalised and in double-quotes for the in-text citation, but not for the reference list entry.

The example above is a news article on a single page from a trade/industry journal that has no author listed.

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has no author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  ("Article Title," Year, p. X)

In order to "avoid face-to-face appointments", 1 in 3 people accessed information online ("Australians Turning to Dr Google," 2016, p. 13).

 

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example ("Trying Times", 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example ("Trying Times", 2019, pp. 14-15).

Journal articles with 1 author

 

Article with a DOI (print or electronic)

Article from a library or database (with no DOI)

Do not include an access link

Article found on the web (with no DOI)

Print article (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 1 author:  (Author Surname, Year)

Example:

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (Dempsey, 2012).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (Author Surname, Year, p. X)

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2014, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2015, pp. 53-54).

Journal articles with 2 authors

 

Article with a DOI (print or electronic)

Article from a library or database (with no DOI)

Do not include an access link

Article found on the web (with no DOI)

Print article (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 2 authors:  (1st Author surname & 2nd Author surname, Year)

Example:

New technologies need to be evaluated before large scale investment is made by organisations (Marra & Edmond, 2014).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (1st Author surname & 2nd Author surname, Year, p. X)

"The convergence of media means that the dichotomy between old and new media economies is hard to maintain" (Gorton & Garde-Hansen, 2013, p. 298).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Smith & Jones, 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Smith & Jones, 2019, pp. 14-15).

Journal articles with more than 3 authors

 

This pattern is used for articles with up to 20 authors:

Article with a DOI (print or electronic)

Article from a library or database (with no DOI)

Do not include an access link

Article found on the web (with no DOI)

Print article (with no DOI)

Continue the above patterns, adding additional authors as needed.  For articles with 21+ authors, see the next tab.

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 3-20 authors:  (1st Author surname et al., Year)

Example:

... techniques including visual observations during ambulation on a flat surface (McDonald et al., 2006).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 3-20 authors, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (1st Author surname et al., Year, p. X)

Jorm et al. (2006, p. 4) argue "the key areas for action are prevention and early intervention with first-onset disorders".

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Smith et al., 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Smith et al., 2019, pp. 14-15).

Journal articles with 21+ authors

 

For 21+ authors, add the first 19, then an ellipsis (...), then the last author:

Article with a DOI (print or electronic)

Article from a library or database (with no DOI)

Do not include an access link

Article found on the web (with no DOI)

Print article (with no DOI)

Note that journal articles are the only resource to have this pattern,  Everything else follows the '3 or more' pattern.

 

Reference list example:

Note that the above example uses an Article Number.  These are acceptable for APA 7.  For direct quoting from articles like this, use the page numbers (1-...) on the article.


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 3 or more authors:  (1st Author surname et al., Year)

Example:

... techniques including visual observations during ambulation on a flat surface (McDonald et al., 2006).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (1st Author surname at al., Year, p. X)

Jorm et al. (2006, p. 4) argue "the key areas for action are prevention and early intervention with first-onset disorders".

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Smith et al., 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Smith et al., 2019, pp. 14-15).

Journal articles with corporate authors

 

'Corporate authors' are groups, societies or organisations who have written publications. This includes universities, research groups, museums, government departments, professional associations, and so on.

Article with a DOI (print or electronic)

Article from a library or database (with no DOI)

Article found on the web (with no DOI)

Print article (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 1 author:  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

Thousands of teachers, principals, early childhood workers and academics have graduated and gone on to make their mark in and out of the classroom in communities (University of Newcastle, 2009).


If an author's name is known by a common acronym (eg. ABS  for Australian Bureau of Statistics, AIHW for Australian Institute for Health and Welfare), include the full name, plus the acronym in the first in-text citation, in the format:

(Corporate Author [CA], Year)

Example:

"Over half of people aged 15 years and older (56%) considered their overall health to be very good or excellent, and 29% stated that their health was good" (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2009, p. 3).

In subsequent references, include just the acronym:

(CA, Year)

Example:
... 19% of people aged 18 years and over (19%) were current daily smokers (ABS, 2009).


Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (Corporate Author, Year, p. X)

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (NSW Health, 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (NSW Health, 2019, pp. 14-15).

Journal articles - Advance publication / online first

 

Many journal publishers provide access to articles before they have been assigned a volume, issue or page numbers, referring to them as "Advance Publication" or "Online First" articles:

Article with a DOI

Article found on the web (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.


For these articles, follow the author formatting for the number of authors involved - for example, for 3 authors, see the tab for that number.

 

Direct Quotations

Use the pagination on the document, adding "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2020, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2020, pp. 2-3).

Journal articles - 'In-press'

 

'In-press' means that the article has been accepted for publication, but not yet published.  These articles are different to the 'online first' article from the previous tab, as the content may not have been finalised.

As this is not the 'final version' of the article, we replace the year with the words 'in press':

Article, In-press

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.

 

For these articles, follow the author formatting for the number of authors involved - for the example above (2 authors), we follow that pattern to format the author, replacing the year with 'in press':  (Burrows & Morrison, in press)

 

Direct Quotations

Use the pagination on the document, adding "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, in press, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, in press, pp. 2-3).

Systematic reviews

 

Cochrane Library systematic review

Reference as directed here

JBI systematic review

Reference as directed here

Other systematic reviews

Where the systematic review is available via a journal - reference as for a journal article and follow the formatting shown on the tabs on this page.

If the systematic review is only available via a specialised database resource similar to Cochrane or JBI - follow the patterns outlined on the pages above.

Newspaper and Magazine articles

 

NOTE: Newspaper and magazine articles do not have the same level of scholarly quality as journal articles.  Make sure to check if they are suitable for use in your assessments.

 

General rules:

Author Names
  • Appear first in the reference, surname first followed by a comma, then initials (do not include the full first names of authors).
  • If the article does not have an author move the title to the author position, before the year of publication. End with a full-stop.
Date
  • The year, month and day of the newspaper or magazine should appear as a complete date, for both print and online.
Article Titles
  • Capitalise the first word of the title and sub-title (and any proper nouns).
Newspaper and Magazine Titles
  • Capitalise all words in the title (except for common words - of, and, etc).
  • Titles appear in full (not abbreviated - e.g. Sydney Morning Herald, not SMH), and in italics.
Volume
  • Volume numbers appear in italics immediately following the journal title and a comma.
Issue Number
  • Issue numbers should be included where provided.
  • If there is no obvious issue number, check the journal home page or database where you accessed the article from. If you can confirm that no issue is listed, only include the volume information.
Pagination
  • Most online articles will not include pages as the article formatting/presentation is changed for online publication.
  • For print articles, the full pagination must be listed in the reference, even if spread over multiple pages of the newspaper or magazine.  See the patterns on the next tab for more information.
Access URLs
  • APA 7 requires the full access URL to be used for these sources - i.e. the link should be to article-level, not the home page

Newspaper articles

NOTE: APA 7 treats news sites differently to online newspapersWhen is doubt, look to see if the news site started as a newspaper.  If it did, reference following the patterns below.  For general news sites (such as ABC News, CNN, etc.), reference using the pattern for news web pages.
Article found on the web

Print article, single page

Print article, multiple pages
Print article, non-consecutive pages
Print article, no author
Article from a library or database Follow the pattern for the type of article as shown in the print examples above

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.


For these articles, follow the author formatting for the number of authors involved - for example, for 1 author, see the tab for that number.

 

Direct Quotations

Use the pagination on the document, adding "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2020, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2020, pp. 2-3).

Where the article is online and has no pagination, count the paragraphs and use that instead of pages, e.g. (Seber, 2019, para. 3).

Magazine articles and stories

 

Article found on the web

Print article, single page

Print article, multiple pages
Print article, non-consecutive pages
Print article, no author
Article from a library or database Follow the pattern for the type of article as shown in the print examples above

 

Reference list examples:

In the examples above, no volume, issue, or page information is provided.  In these cases, just cite the title of the online magazine and then provide the full access link.


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.


For these articles, follow the author formatting for the number of authors involved - for example, for 1 author, see the tab for that number.

 

Direct Quotations

Use the pagination on the document, adding "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2020, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2020, pp. 2-3).

Where the article is online and has no pagination, count the paragraphs and use that instead of pages, e.g. (Seber, 2019, para. 3).

Book reviews

 

General Notes:

  • Book reviews can be published in a variety of sources such as newspapers, magazines or journals.

  • When citing book reviews, the general formatting is reliant on the source material in which the book review is published, but the following information should be always added after the title of the review in the format of [Review of the book Title of book, by A. A. Author].

  • Reviews are considered 'static' by APA standards and therefore do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • If a resource is assigned a DOI, this alphanumeric sequence is required to be added to the reference. Check the What are DOIs? page for more information.

  • Do not include a full-stop after the DOI or URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Book review from a print magazine or newspaper

Book review from an online magazine or newspaper

Book review from a journal

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general pattern:  (Author Surname, Year)

Example:

... has a certain directness that is pleasing to read (Smith, 2019).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a page reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2014, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2015, pp. 53-54).


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