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University of Newcastle Library guides

APA 7th Style:  Web resources

UON Library guide for the APA 7th referencing style

Resources found on the web

 

Please note that there are different forms of web content (blog posts, press releases, etc.) with differing formatting rules under APA - refer to the appropriate tab for the resource you are referencing.

 

General guidelines
  • Title capitalisation may change depending on the resource you're quoting. Be sure to check the correct tab for the online material you've found.
  • Some online resources require the use of a screen name as the author.
  • Some online resources require the use of a month and day in addition to the year.
  • Always include an access URL (unless the material has an assigned DOI).
  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.
A note about retrieval dates for web sources

For APA 7 retrieval dates are only required if a web source can be expected to change over time.  Therefore most websites (and all documents) accessed online do not require a retrieval date as they are unlikely to change (without being replaced by new material with different citation information).

Some web sources, however, are not static and could be expected to be updated (e.g. wikis, certain online health resources). Under this guideline, such sources would need a retrieval date to show when they were accessed. The formatting examples in this guide will detail when a retrieval date is required.

Citing websites versus web pages

There is often confusion when referencing websites in assignments.

To talk about a website in general terms, refer to the Websites section at the bottom of the page.

If you are referencing information from a web page see the information directly below.

For documents from the web see the tab for Online documents.


Web pages

 

General Notes:

  • The title of web pages should now be italicised.  This is a major revision for APA 7.
  • The name of the hosting site is required to be added before the access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7.
  • The words 'Retrieved from' are no longer required before an access link unless a retrieval date is required for the source.  This is a major revision for APA 7.
  • The year of publication may not be obvious - check for a posting, creation or update date. Include the Month and Day in your reference list entry where available. The copyright date from a repeated web page footer is not acceptable to use as a creation date.
  • For in-text citations, use only the Year of the web page, do not include the Month and Day.
  • Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break the URL before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.
  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.
  • Need to direct quote from a web page? See the section below.
Web page authored by a person

Web page with a corporate author

Where the author is the same as the title of the website, do not repeat the website title

Web page with no date

Follow the above patterns but replace (Year, Month Day) with (n.d.).  See the example below.

 

Examples:

undefined

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns:  (Author Surname, Year)  or  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (University of Melbourne, 2012).


If a corporate author is known by a common acronym (eg. ABS  for Australian Bureau of Statistics, AIHW for Australian Institute for Health and Welfare), include the full name, plus the acronym in the first in-text citation, in the format:

(Corporate Author [CA], Year)

Example:

(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2019).

In subsequent references, include just the acronym:

(CA, Year)

Example:
... 19% of people aged 18 years and over (19%) were current daily smokers (ABS, 2019)


Direct quoting from web pages

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from an online source without pages, count the paragraphs and use that number in place of pages:  (Author Surname, Year, para. X)

Clark and Brown (2012) suggest "that all those in powerful positions in organizations display similar traits" (para. 12).

If the source includes section headings, you can include the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to assist the reader in locating the information. For example:

James (2012) concludes "bullying is at epidemic levels in organizations which do not display strong leadership at the top" (Discussion section, para. 3).

NOTE: Use "para." when quoting from one paragraph - for example (Acciari, 2014, para. 14), and "paras." when quoting across more than one paragraph - for example (Wessel, 2015, paras. 3-4).

 


Discussing a website in general terms

 

To cite a website as a whole or to discuss it in general terms in your assignment using APA, it is sufficient to give the site URL as part of the text, inside round brackets. There is no need for a reference list entry.

 

In-text reference

The WHO website (http://www.who.int/) is accessible in six languages and ...

Reference list

No entry needed.

Documents found online

This information is for general documents found online, that are not covered elsewhere in this guide.

N.B. For the following document types, refer to their specialist pages:

General Notes:

  • Titles of online documents should always be italicised.

  • Provide a description of kind of document in square brackets after the title to assist the reader in identifying less-typical types of sources (e.g., brochures, pamphlets, press releases, policy briefs or directives, fact sheets). If the type of resource is obvious from the title, then leave these descriptions out.

  • If you cannot locate a date on the document use the abbreviation (n.d.) in place of the year.

  • Online documents are considered 'static' by APA standards and therefore do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

  • For print pamphlets and brochures, refer to the specialist tab on the Health Resources page.
Online document authored by a person

Online document with a corporate author

Where the author is the same as the title of the website, do not repeat the website title

Online document with no date

Follow the above patterns but replace (Year, Month Day) with (n.d.).  See the example below.

 

Reference list examples:

 

The final two examples don't require the additional description information in square brackets as it is obvious from their titles.

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns:  (Author Surname, Year)  or  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (University of Melbourne, 2012).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a page reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2014, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2015, pp. 53-54).

Press releases

 

General Notes:

  • Titles of press releases should always be italicised.

  • Provide a description of [Press release] in square brackets after the title.

  • Include the full date of publication (Year, Month Day). If you cannot locate a date on the document use the abbreviation (n.d.) in place of the year.

  • Press releases are considered 'static' by APA standards and therefore do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Press release authored by a person

Press release with a corporate author

Where the author is the same as the title of the website, do not repeat the website title

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns:  (Author Surname, Year)  or  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (University of Melbourne, 2012)

Direct quoting

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from an online source without pages, count the paragraphs and use that number in place of pages:  (Author, Year, para. X)

Clark (2012) suggests "that all those in powerful positions in organizations display similar traits" (para. 12).

If the source includes section headings, you can include the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to assist the reader in locating the information. For example:

James (2012) concludes "bullying is at epidemic levels in organizations which do not display strong leadership at the top" (Discussion section, para. 3).

NOTE: Use "para." when quoting from one paragraph - for example (Acciari, 2014, para. 14), and "paras." when quoting across more than one paragraph - for example (Wessel, 2015, paras. 3-4).

Blog posts

 

General Notes:

  • Provide the exact date of the post in the form Year, Month Day.
  • Do not italicise the title of the post.
  • The name of the blog site is required to be added before the access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7.
  • The words 'Retrieved from' are no longer required before an access link unless a retrieval date is required for the source.  This is a major revision for APA 7.
  • For in-text citations, use only the Year of the posting, do not include the Month and Day.
  • Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break the URL before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.
  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.
  • To talk about a blog in general terms, refer to the section at the bottom of the page.
Blog post authored by a person

Where the author is using a screen name, use that in place of the standard naming.

Blog post with a corporate author

Where the author is the same as the title of the website, do not repeat the website title

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns:  (Author Surname, Year)  or  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (University of Melbourne, 2012).

 


Direct quoting from blogs

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from an online source without pages, count the paragraphs and use that number in place of pages:  (Author Surname, Year, para. X)

Clark and Brown (2012) suggest "that all those in powerful positions in organizations display similar traits" (para. 12).

If the source includes section headings, you can include the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to assist the reader in locating the information. For example:

James (2012) concludes "bullying is at epidemic levels in organizations which do not display strong leadership at the top" (Discussion section, para. 3).

NOTE: Use "para." when quoting from one paragraph - for example (Acciari, 2014, para. 14), and "paras." when quoting across more than one paragraph - for example (Wessel, 2015, paras. 3-4).

 


Discussing a blog in general terms

 

To cite a blog as a whole or to discuss it in general terms in your assignment, it is sufficient to give the blog URL in text, inside round brackets. There is no need for a reference list entry.

 

In-text reference

 

The Unpretentious Librarian blog (http://unpretentiouslibrarian.blogspot.com.au/) posts a number of entries that the professional librarian may find interesting.

Reference list

No entry needed.

Twitter and Instagram posts

 

General Notes:

  • For Twitter and Instagram, include the username in square brackets after the author's name.

  • Include up to the first 20 words of the post as the title.  Titles of posts should always be italicised

  • After the title, include a description of the post in square brackets, e.g. [Tweet] for Twitter;  [Photograph] or [Video] for Instagram.

  • Retain all nonstandard spelling / capitalisation, hashtags, links, etc.  Keep emojis intact if possible - if you cannot recreate the emoji, provide the emoji's name in square brackets from the list here.

  • Include the full date of publication (Year, Month Day).

  • Social media posts are considered 'static' by APA standards and therefore do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Posts authored by a person

Posts with a corporate author

Tweets including an image, a video, or a retweeted comment Add an additional description of any attached media in another set of square brackets before the standard description of [Tweet].  See the UON Library and Reynolds entries below for examples.

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns:  (Author Surname, Year)  or  (Corporate Author, Year)

Do not include the @username in the in-text citation.

Example:

... including pithy retorts to fan-generated posts (for an example, see Reynolds, 2020).

Direct quoting

As social media posts are short, follow the basic pattern:  (Author, Year)

Where possible, you could make reference to the fact that the source was social media, e.g:

Clark (2019) stated in the social media post that "it was the worst day of [his] life".

Facebook posts

This format can be used for other social media services, such as Tumbler, LinkedIn, etc.

For Twitter and Instagram, see the previous tab on this page.

General Notes:

  • For Facebook, you generally do not need to include the username.

  • Include up to the first 20 words of the post as the title.  Titles of posts should always be italicised

  • After the title, include a description of the type of Facebook post in square brackets, e.g. [Video], [Infographic], etc.  'Standard' posts (including those with images) should be described as a [Status update].

  • Retain all nonstandard spelling / capitalisation, hashtags, links, etc.  Keep emojis intact if possible - if you cannot recreate the emoji, provide the emoji's name in square brackets from the list here.

  • Include the full date of publication (Year, Month Day).

  • Social media posts are considered 'static' by APA standards and therefore do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Posts authored by a person

Posts with a corporate author

Posts including additional media Add an additional description of any attached media in another set of square brackets before the standard description.  See the Reynolds entry below for an example.

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Follow the general patterns:  (Author Surname, Year)  or  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

... including pithy posts about his wife (for an example, see Reynolds, 2019).

Direct quoting

As social media posts are short, follow the basic pattern:  (Author, Year)

Where possible, you could make reference to the fact that the source was social media, e.g:

Clark (2019) stated in the social media post that "it was the worst day of [his] life".

News sites

 

NOTE: APA 7 treats news sites differently to online newspapersWhen is doubt, look to see if the news site started as a newspaper.  If it did, reference as an online newspaper.  For general news sites (such as ABC News, CNN, etc.), reference using the patterns below - note that the italics are the opposite to an online newspaper.
Article authored by a person

Article with a corporate author

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.


For these articles, follow the author formatting for the type/number of authors involved - for example, for 1 author, see the tab for that number.

 

Direct Quotations

Where the article is online and has no pagination, count the paragraphs and use that instead of pages, e.g. (Seber, 2019, para. 3).

Images taken from the web

 

See the page for Web images

Statistics (ABS)

 

See the page for Other source types

YouTube and Streaming video

 

See the page for Video & audio

Podcasts and Streaming music

 

See the page for Video & audio

'Research Starters' from the Library catalogue

 

See the page for Book chapters

NSW Health forms and screening checklists

 

See the page for Health resources

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UON Referencing Guide