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University of Newcastle Library guides

APA 7th Style:  Other source types

UON Library guide for the APA 7th referencing style

Various other sources

Personal communication

 

The APA manual identifies the following examples of personal communications:

  • emails
  • private letters
  • memos
  • personal interviews
  • telephone conversations
  • other sources not publicly available

Whilst personal communications should be cited in-text, an entry is not included in the reference list.

To cite in-text include the initials and surname of the author, plus the day month and year of the communication.

 

In-text examples:

C. Brisden (personal communication, June 4, 2019) commented ...

... theories and guidelines were significantly aligned (J.T. Bowen, personal communication, February 25, 2019).

 

Reference list entries:

None required.

Case studies (people)

 

APA does not treat case studies as an individual resource - reference the source material in which the case study is found, e.g. for a case study featured in a book, you would reference the book.

If required for your assignment, the case study can be specifically mentioned in your text, just add the standard in-text reference for the source.  As the case study is something specific within a larger resource, add a page number to your in-text citation to help the reader locate it.

For case studies accessed as:

Case studies found in other types of sources will follow the same pattern as above - refer to the appropriate page in this guide.

 

Example for a case study, in-text:

As the case study detailed by Stein-Parbury (2008, p. 165) shows, an over-reliance on systems-focused communication can have unintended consequences ...

 

Reference list:

Reference the source as you would normally.

Data sets

 

General Notes:

  • Titles of data sets should always be italicised.

  • Provide a description of [Data set] in square brackets after the title.

  • Data sets do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the DOI or URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Data set with DOI

Data set without DOI

Data set with a corporate author Reference as above, but change the author to Corporate Author.  Where the author is the same as the publisher, do not repeat the publisher information.

 

Reference list examples:

 

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.

Follow the general pattern for the number or type of authors.  For the example shown shown above, we would use the 'more than 3 authors' rule:

(Boland et al., 2010)

Legal references

 

Legal references covers:

  • Legislation (Acts and Bills)
  • Legal cases
  • Parliamentary debates (Hansard)
  • Patents

 

See the page for Legal references.

Patents

 

See the page for Legal references

Standards

 

General Notes:

  • APA 7 doesn’t specifically cover how to reference standards.  The information presented below has been constructed from general APA guidelines fom similar resources.

  • Titles of standards should always be italicised.

  • Provide the standard number in brackets after the title.

  • For online standards: As the same standard may be available from multiple locations, do not include the access link for the online store or Library database.

Standards (online or print)

 

Reference list example:

 

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.

Follow the general pattern:  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

There is a procedure for internal visual inspection (Standards Australia, 2008) in which it is desirable ...

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a page reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“Storage safety is the number one requirement” (Standards Australia, 2018, p. 2).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Standards Australia, 2018, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Standards Australia, 2018, pp. 53-54).

Mobile apps

 

General Notes:

  • Titles of apps should always be italicised.

  • Provide a description of [Mobile app] in square brackets after the title.

  • To locate the year and/or version number, you may need to access the 'Version history' or 'Additional information' sections of the app store pages.

  • Apps do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Mobile app

Mobile app authored by a person

Entry from a mobile app reference work

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.

Follow the general pattern for the number or type of authors.  For the examples shown shown above, we would use the 'corporate authors' rule:

(BMJ Group, 2019)

(MIMS, 2018)

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add a paragraph reference to your in-text citation, e.g.:

“This family of drugs is absorbed well via the skin” (MIMS, 2018, para. 6).

You can also use a section heading if required, e.g.:

“This family of drugs is absorbed well via the skin” (MIMS, 2018, Usage section, para. 6).

Poems and epigrams

 

General Notes:

  • APA 7 doesn’t specifically cover how to reference poems (and their shorter forms also known as Epigrams).  The information presented below has been constructed from general APA guidelines fom similar resources.

  • Titles of poems from book sources should not be italicised.  However, poems taken from web pages should have their titles italicised.

  • Poems sourced online do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Poem from an anthology or collection

Poems from ebooks Follow the patterns shown on the Book chapters page.
Poems from the web

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 1 author:  (Author Surname, Year)

Example:

... where the poem "Almighty" demonstrates an illusion of pragmatism (Dempsey, 2012).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (Author Surname, Year, p. X)

“These feelings consume me” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2014, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2015, pp. 53-54).

Longer quotes from poems should follow the style of block quotations and are indented.

Epigraphs

 

General Notes:

  • Epigraphs usually appear at the start of a document or article and serve the purpose of establishing a context for the writing to follow or to set the scene.

  • The text of the epigraph usually appears as a block quotation, indented from the left margin.

  • An epigraph’s source is not listed in the reference list unless it comes from a scholarly book, journal.  For more information, see pp. 277-278 of the Publication Manual.

 

Example in-text usage:

Tyger, Tyger, burning bright,

In the forests of the night:

What immortal hand or eye,

Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

-William Blake, “The Tyger”

The concept of the ‘fearful symmetry’ is alluded to in a variety of texts…

 

Statistics (ABS)

 

General Notes:

  • Titles of ABS statistics should always be italicised.

  • Provide the ABS catalogue number in  brackets after the title.  You may need to scroll to the bottom of the page to locate this on the latest releases.

  • Statistics do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 

  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.

Statistics (ABS)

 

Reference list examples:

 

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.

Follow the general pattern for the number or type of authors.  For the example shown shown above, we would use the 'corporate authors' rule:  (Corporate Author, Year)

 

Examples:

The census data (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018) indicated that...

OR

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2018) provided evidence...

 

Need to reference more than statistic from the same year?  See the tab for Same author/s and same year on the page for In-text Citations

Reference works

 

For information on how to reference entries or chapters from reference works such as:

  • Dictionaries
  • Encyclopaedias
  • Thesaurii
  • Indexes, etc.

see the Book chapters page.

'Research Starters' from the Library catalogue

 

See the page for Book chapters

Book reviews

 

See the page for Articles

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UON Referencing Guide