When writing assignments you will use ideas, theories, word-for-word quotations, facts and figures, as well as illustrations and even diagrams that are not your own.
These ideas etc will originate from numerous sources, including;
- articles from journals or newspapers and
- websites and other online resources.
These sources of information which you used must be acknowledged, i.e. referenced or cited.
As well as specific direct quotations, your references must also cover must the ideas and theories that you mentioned or relied upon.
Referencing shows what sources you have used and gives credit to the original authors, it allows readers to find the original source to check it or follow up a point. By referencing your information sources you are practising Academic Integrity. For the University's Policy on Academic Integrity see the UoN Student Academic Integrity Policy.
Correct referencing helps you avoid plagiarism. For more on plagiarism see the Infoskills tutorial on Writing and Plagiarism.
Referencing Styles are used to cite the details which clearly identify your information source; i.e., author, date, title, edition, volume, pages, Digital Object Identifier (DOI), URL, etc.
University study, writing and/or research requires the constant use of diverse and relevant information sources.
Such information sources will include (but not be limited to):
(print & online)
(print & online)
|lectures & course material|
& government reports
|web pages||conference papers||statistics &
The type of information used might be;
|quotations||ideas or concepts|
|background &/or historical materials||statistics|
|experimental data||images, illustrations, or pictures|
|equations, charts or graphs||music (lyrics &/or musical phrases)|
All sources of information (of whatever type) used in or relied upon for Assignments, Essays, Tutorials, Seminars, Presentations, Lab Reports, Group Work, etc., must be identified in full, and in a clear, accurate and consistent manner.
The University of Newcastle values academic integrity very highly. The Student Academic Integrity Policy states:
“Academic integrity, honesty, and a respect for knowledge, truth and ethical practices are fundamental to the business of the University. These principles are at the core of all academic endeavour in teaching, learning and research. Dishonest practices contravene academic values, compromise the integrity of research and devalue the quality of learning.”
You must reference your information sources (i.e. identify the sources of any ideas, quotes, statistics, or other materials you have used or relied upon in your work). To do this, you use a referencing style. There are many different styles and each has its own style manual.
Style manuals list rules on the content (or elements) of your references as well as the layout (i.e. the formatting, capitalisation, indentation, punctuation, etc) of references. They also include examples of how to arrange and present your in-text references (author-date or footnotes) and reference list (also known as a bibliography).
There are many different styles of referencing. Use the style which your School or Faculty specifies. Common styles used here at UON are indexed on the left of this page.
The following are print editions of selected style manuals. Some styles may have complete manuals available online - check the page for the style you need for further information and links.