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University of Newcastle Library guides

APA 7th Style:  Books & Theses

UON Library guide for the APA 7th referencing style

Books

General rules:

Author Names
  • Appear first in the reference, surname first followed by a comma, then initials (do not include the full first names of authors).
  • Include all author names in the reference list.
  • If the book does not have an author move the title to the author position, before the year of publication. End with a full-stop.
  • If the book is edited, place the editor names in the author position. After the last editor include the abbreviation (Ed.) or (Eds.), then a full-stop.
Book Titles
  • Book titles appear in full (including any sub-title), and in italics.
  • Capitalise the first words of title and sub-title, along with any proper nouns.
Editions
  • Include details of the edition in brackets after the title (not in italics), followed by a full-stop.
  • Editions should only be noted if 2nd ed. or above, if a special 1st edition (e.g. 1st Aust. ed.), or if the book has been otherwise updated or revised (e.g. Rev. ed., Updated 8th ed., etc). APA does not require a standard 1st ed. to be documented.
  • Remove any superscript from editions when typing - all letters should be on the same line (e.g. 2nd ed.).
Place of Publication
  • No longer required.  This is a major revision for APA 7.
Publisher
  • Publisher information is now required for all books, regardless of formatThis is a major revision for APA 7.
  • Do not include business structure terms such as "LLC", "Inc", or "Ltd" in the publisher name.
  • Where multiple publishers are noted, add them in order, separated by a semicolon (e.g. American Heart Association; Wiley & Sons.)
  • Where the author and the publisher are the same, leave out the publisher information to avoid repetition.
Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)
  • If a resource is assigned a DOI, this alphanumeric sequence is required to be added to the reference. Check the What are DOIs? page for more information.

  • For formatting purposes, DOIs must be formatted in APA 7 references as the link version, e.g. "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.03.029".

  • Do not include a full-stop after the DOI at the end of the reference.

Access URLs
  • If accessing an ebook from the Library catalogue or a database, no access link is required.  This is a major revision for APA 7.
  • APA 7 does not require the statement "Retrieved from ..." for ebooks.
  • If the ebook was found via the web (and no log-in is required), include the full access link.
  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

References within books and chapters

 

In your research you will often encounter articles that refer to another researcher's work. This source within a source is known as a 'secondary source' and is referenced in a particular way.

Where possible, you should try to obtain the original work being referenced and read through the research to form your own opinions.

Often, however, it is impossible to obtain the original publication - it may be published in another language, or in a book or journal which is difficult to access.

In these circumstances, you are permitted to include a citation to the secondary source.

For more information on how to reference these resources see the page on Secondary sources.

Books with no author listed

 

Move the Title up to the author position:

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has no author:  (Book Title, Year)

If the title is long, you can shorten it for use in the in-text citation.

Example:

Australians see their health as more important than ever (Australian Health, 2016).

Note that the title is capitalised for the in-text citation, but not for the reference list entry.  Both are in italics.

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has no author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (Book Title, Year, p. X)

In order to improve their health, 1 in 3 people have at least attempted an exercise regimen (Australian Health, 2016, p. 13).

 

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (What Now?, 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (What Now?, 2019, pp. 14-15).

Books with 1 author

 

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 1 author:  (Author Surname, Year)

Example:

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (Dempsey, 2012).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (Author Surname, Year, p. X)

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2014, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2015, pp. 53-54).

Books with 2 authors

 

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 2 authors:  (1st Author surname & 2nd Author surname, Year)

Example:

New technologies need to be evaluated before large scale investment is made by organisations (Marra & Edmond, 2014).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (1st Author surname & 2nd Author surname, Year, p. X)

"The convergence of media means that the dichotomy between old and new media economies is hard to maintain" (Gorton & Garde-Hansen, 2013, p. 298).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Smith & Jones, 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Smith & Jones, 2019, pp. 14-15).

Books with 3 or more authors

 

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

Continue the above patterns, adding additional authors as needed.

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 3 or more authors:  (1st Author surname et al., Year)

Example:

... techniques including visual observations during ambulation on a flat surface (McDonald et al., 2006).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 3 or more authors, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (1st Author surname et al., Year, p. X)

Jorm et al. (2006, p. 4) argue "the key areas for action are prevention and early intervention with first-onset disorders".

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Smith et al., 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Smith et al., 2019, pp. 14-15).

Books with corporate authors

 

'Corporate authors' are groups, societies or organisations who have written publications. This includes universities, research groups, museums, government departments, professional associations, and so on.

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:

The first example shows a book where the author and the publisher are the same.  The publisher is left out in these cases to avoid repetition.


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 1 author:  (Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

Thousands of teachers, principals, early childhood workers and academics have graduated and gone on to make their mark in and out of the classroom in communities (University of Newcastle, 2009).


If an author's name is known by a common acronym (eg. ABS  for Australian Bureau of Statistics, AIHW for Australian Institute for Health and Welfare), include the full name, plus the acronym in the first in-text citation, in the format:

(Corporate Author [CA], Year)

Example:

"Over half of people aged 15 years and older (56%) considered their overall health to be very good or excellent, and 29% stated that their health was good" (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2009, p. 3).

In subsequent references, include just the acronym:

(CA, Year)

Example:
... 19% of people aged 18 years and over (19%) were current daily smokers (ABS, 2009).


Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (Corporate Author, Year, p. X)

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (NSW Health, 2019, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (NSW Health, 2019, pp. 14-15).

Edited books

 

A note on referencing edited books

Edited books contain chapters written by different authors. In most cases you would actually want to reference the individual chapters you use from the edited book, not the edited book itself. See the Book chapters page for more.

 

Book with a single editor:

 

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

Book with 2 or more editors:

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

Continue to follow the pattern above to add more editors.  Note the 's' added in the brackets for multiple editors

 

Reference list examples:

Books with no publication date

 

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.


For these books, follow the author formatting for the number of authors involved but use 'n.d.' in place of the year - for example, (Southey, n.d.).

 

Direct Quotations

Use the pagination on the document, adding "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, n.d., p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, n.d., pp. 2-3).

Graphic novels

 

General notes:
  • Graphic novels follow the standard guidelines for books, the main difference being that there are also artists. APA suggests that artists are considered to be an 'author' if they have contributed to the work in a major way. The rule of thumb for APA seems to be inclusion on the cover - list all creators listed on the cover as authors.
  • Include the creators in the order they are listed on the graphic novel. Standard order is writer, then artist/s, but this is not always the case.
  • As with any book, include an edition statement if one is stated on the graphic novel, for example the Maus graphic novel below is the 25th anniversary edition.

For a stand-alone graphic novel:

Print graphic novel (with no DOI)

Graphic novel with a DOI (print or electronic)

Graphic Novel from a library database (with no DOI)

Graphic Novel found on the web (with no DOI)

For a graphic novel from a series (common for Marvel, DC, etc.):

Print graphic novel (with no DOI)

Graphic novel with a DOI (print or electronic)

Graphic Novel from a library database (with no DOI)

Graphic Novel found on the web (with no DOI)

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
For graphic novels, follow the author formatting for the number of authors involved.

Example:

Maus views the history of the Jewish people through the lens of a anthropormorphised rodent protagonist (Spiegelman, 2011).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source, add pagination to your in-text citation:

When the stray dog found by Hawkeye is identified as 'Arrow' via his tag, Hawkeye suggests that he'll "come up with something better" (Fraction, Aja, & Pulido, 2013, p. 21).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page and "pp" when quoting from more multiple pages.

Children's books and graded readers

 

For children's books (illustrated or otherwise) and books from graded reading schemes (such as Springboard, PM Library, Macmillan Readers, etc), refer to the information on the Education Resources page.

Syllabus documents

 

For online and print syllabus documents, refer to the information on the Education Resources page.

If you are referring to syllabus information on a website (rather than a downloaded document), you should cite the information as a web page.

Reference works

 

For information on how to reference entries or chapters from reference works such as:

  • Dictionaries
  • Encyclopaedias
  • Thesaurii
  • Indexes, etc.

see the Book chapters page.

Translated books

 

Book with a DOI (print or electronic)

Book from a library database (with no DOI)

Book found on the web (with no DOI)

Print book (with no DOI)

Note that there is no full-stop after the bracket at the end of a reference for translated source.

 

Reference list examples:


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has been translated is:  (Author Surname, Original Year/Republished Year)

Example:

Kitchen transposes bereavement against the life and love that the titular location embodies (Yoshimoto, 1988/1993).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a translated source, add pagination to your in-text citation:

Yoshimoto (1988/1993, p. 3) suggests that tiles "catching the light" is one of the reasons for the title character loving the kitchen so much.

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page and "pp" when quoting from more multiple pages.

Religious and classic works

 

For information on how to reference classic or religious works, see the information on the APA Style Blog:

Difficult-to-reference textbooks

 

For advice on how to reference chapters from difficult textbooks such as:

  • Kozier and Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing (Australian Edition) [catalogue link]
  • LeMone and Burke's Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking for Person-Centred Care (Australian Edition) [catalogue link]
  • Teaching: Making A Difference [catalogue link]
  • Education, Change and Society [catalogue link]

see the Book chapters page for more information.

 

For other textbooks with clear authors or editors see the other tabs on this page and/or the Book chapters page.

Pamphlets and brochures (print)

 

A number of organisations still publish print pamphlets and brochures.

For referencing information and examples, refer to the Health Resources page.


Pamphlets and brochures (online)

 

For pamphlets and brochures found online, refer to the Web resources page.

Course Readers and Compiled Texts ('Custom Book Editions')

 

Course readers and compiled texts are usually collections of chapters and articles specifically chosen as readings for a particular subject.

To reference from these publications see the notes on the Course Material page.

Book reviews

 

For referencing information and examples, refer to the Articles page.

Masters theses

 

General notes:
  • The exact format of references to theses and dissertations is dependent upon whether the thesis/dissertation is published or unpublished, and how it is available (only in print, via a database or institutional repository).
  • Theses that are only available in print from their home institution are considered 'unpublished', while theses available online or via a database are consider 'published'.
  • The type of thesis ("Master's thesis" or "Unpublished master's thesis") is included in square brackets after the title of the thesis.
Masters thesis from a database

Masters thesis found on the web

Print thesis

 

Reference list examples:

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 1 author:  (Author Surname, Year)

Example:

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (Dempsey, 2012).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (Author Surname, Year, p. X)

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2014, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2015, pp. 53-54).

PhD dissertations (theses)

 

General notes:
  • The exact format of references to theses and dissertations is dependent upon whether the thesis/dissertation is published or unpublished, and how it is available (only in print, via a database or institutional repository).
  • Theses that are only available in print from their home institution are considered 'unpublished', while theses available online or via a database are consider 'published'.
  • The type of thesis ("Doctoral dissertation" or "Unpublished doctoral dissertation") is included in square brackets after the title of the thesis.
PhD thesis from a database

PhD thesis found on the web

Print thesis

 

Reference list examples:

 

 


In-text

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
This is the general format for a source that has 1 author:  (Author Surname, Year)

Example:

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (Dempsey, 2012).

 

Direct Quotations

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:  (Author Surname, Year, p. X)

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2014, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2015, pp. 53-54).


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UON Referencing Guide