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University of Newcastle Library guides

Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography Style:  Web resources

UON Library guide to Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography Style 17th ed.

General Rules and Examples

Web resources

 

General rules:

  • A website refers to the collection of web pages available on the internet. 
  • A website can host a blog or other social media content.
  • For specific type of web resources see the tabs above. 

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text. If a more formal citation is needed, list it in the footnotes. There is no need for a bibliography entry. However, in works with no notes, they may be included in the bibliography (cited by the author, or owner of the site).

Author Names

  • Full author names (including the screen name) appear first in the reference. 
  • If the web content does not have an author, move the title to the author position.

Titles

  • Titles of websites are capitalized headline-style without quotation marks.
  • Titled sections or pages of a website are usually placed in quotation marks. 
  • The titles of blogs can usually be set in italics; titles of blog posts are placed in quotation marks.
  • Social media content is usually untitled. If needed for the purposes of citation, the text of a post itself (either in part or as a whole) can stand in as title.
  • The word website (or web page) may be added (in parentheses) after the title or description of the site if the nature of the source may otherwise be unclear.

Year of Publication

  • Include the date (month, day, year) of publication or revision or last updated, e.g. last updated July 4, 2018. 
  • When the publication/revision date is unknown, include the access date, e.g. accessed July 21, 2018.

DOI or URL

  • Include the DOI if available or the URL as the last element of the citation.
  • Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break the URL before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
  • Remove the University proxy (ezproxy.newcastle.edu.au) from any link used.
  • Include a full-stop after the DOI or URL at the end of the reference.

Secondary Sources

For citations taken from secondary sources, see the Secondary Sources page.

Citing websites and web pages

 

For web resources other than web sites and web pages, see the tabs above. 

 

To cite a website as a whole or to discuss it in general terms in your assignment, It is often sufficient simply to describe the website in the text (e.g. The WHO website (http://www.who.int/) is accessible in six languages and ...), and short URL can be used e.g. the URL http://www.apple.com/ might be referred to in running text as apple.com.

If a more formal citation for a website or webpage is needed, list it in the footnotes. There is no need for a bibliography entry. In works with no notes, they may be included in the bibliography (cited by the author or owner of the site).

  • Titles of websites are capitalized headline-style without quotation marks.
  • Titled sections or pages of a website are usually placed in quotation marks.
  • The word website (or web page) may be added (in parentheses) after the title or description of the site if the nature of the source may otherwise be unclear.

The following is the general format of a reference to a web page.  See the general rules for web resources for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Author's First and Last Names, "Webpage Title," Title or Owner of Website, Date of Publication / Revision or Access, URL.

1. Anna Vallen, "12 Books Every Australian Should Read," Australian Geographic Society, July 21, 2018, http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/history-culture/2016/02/12-books-every-australian-should-read.

2. Australian Society for Indigenous Languages, "Supporting Indigenous Language Communities," accessed July 21, 2018, http://www.ausil.org.au/.

3. Mark Tredinnick, "The Inhumanities; Or, The War on The Humanities & Why Our Humanity Is at Stake," 2020,  https://www.marktredinnick.com/riffs-and-plaints/the-inhumanities-or-the-war-on-the-humanities-amp-why-our-humanity-is-at-stake

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  Author's Last Name, "Shortened Webpage Title."

4. Vallen, "12 Books."

 

Bibliography

Citations of website content can often be limited to the notes; in works with no notes, they may be included in the bibliography (cited by the author or owner of the site).

Author's Last name, First Names. "Webpage Title." Title or Owner of Website. Date of Publication / Revision or Access. URL.

Australian Society for Indigenous Languages. "Supporting Indigenous Language Communities." Australian Society for Indigenous Languages. Accessed July 21, 2018. http://www.ausil.org.au/. 

Tredinnick, Mark. "The Inhumanities; Or, The War on The Humanities & Why Our Humanity Is at Stake." 2020.  https://www.marktredinnick.com/riffs-and-plaints/the-inhumanities-or-the-war-on-the-humanities-amp-why-our-humanity-is-at-stake.

Vallen, Anna. "12 Books Every Australian Should Read." Australian Geographic Society. July 21, 2018. http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/history-culture/2016/02/12-books-every-australian-should-read.

Press releases

 

A press release, also called news release, or media release, is an official statement on a particular matter by a news agent or organisation. Press releases are generally cited in text or notes only. There is no need for a bibliography entry.

  • Titles of press releases should be capitalised in headline style within quotation marks.
  • Provide a description of press release or media release after the title.
  • Include the full date of publication (Month Day, Year). 

The following is the general format of a reference to a press release. 

See also the general rules for newspapers for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Corporate Author, "Press Release Title," press release and no, Month Day, Year, URL.

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics, "More Than One Million Australians Change Jobs," media release cat. no. 6226.0, August 9, 2018,
https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/lookup/6226.0Media%20Release5February%202018.

2. Federal Emergency Management Agency, “FEMA Awards $2,781,435 Grant to DuPage County,” news release no. RV-NR-2015-006, March 19, 2015, https://www.fema.gov/news-release/2015/03/19/fema-awards-2781435-grant-dupage-county.

 

Bibliography


No entry needed.

 

Citing blogs, blog posts, and comments

 

A blog is a web-based forum that consists of posted entries organized by date or topic, and usually accompanied by readers’ comments. 

 

General guidelines for citing blogs

 

To discuss a blog in general terms in your assignment, it is sufficient to cite it in text or notes only. If it is necessary to cite an entire blog in a bibliography, list it under the name of the author/editor (if any) or the title of the blog.

To cite a blog, include the following elements:

  • Author of the blog; 
  • Title of the blog, in italics, followed by '(blog)' unless the word blog is part of the title;
  • Title of the larger publication (if the blog is part of a larger publication); 
  • URL of blog

 Also note:

  • The distinction between a blog and a website is often unclear; when in doubt, treat the title like that of a website.
  • Blogs that are part of a larger publication should also include the name of that publication. 

For example:

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Author of BlogTitle of Blog (blog), Title of Publication, URL of Blog.

1. Deb Amlen, ed. Wordplay (blog), New York Times, http://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/one-who-gives-a-hoot/.

2. Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.

 
Bibliography

If a bibliography entry is needed, it should be listed under the author/editor (if any) or the title of the blog.

Author's Last name, First Names. "Title of the Post," Title of the Blog (blog), Date of Post,  URL of Post.

Amlen, Deb, ed. Wordplay (blog). New York Times. http://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/.

Lingua Franca (blog). The Chronicle of Higher Education. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/.

 

General guidelines for citing specific blog posts

 

Citations of blog posts can often be relegated to the text or notes. If a bibliography entry is needed, it should be listed under the author of the post.

To cite a blog post, include the following elements:

  • Author of the post; 
  • Title of the post, in quotation marks; 
  • Title of the blog, in italics, followed by '(blog)' unless the word blog is part of the title;
  • Title of larger publication (if the blog is part of a larger publication), in italics;
  • Date of the post in the format of Month Day, Year;  
  • URL of post

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Author of the Post"Title of the Post," Title of the Blog (blog), Larger Publication, Date of Post,  URL of Post.

1. Deb Amlen, “One Who Gives a Hoot,” Wordplay (blog), New York Times, January 26, 2015, http://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/one-who-gives-a-hoot/.

2. William Germano, “Futurist Shock,” Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017, http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.

 
Bibliography

If a bibliography entry is needed, it should be listed under the author of the post..

Author's Last name, First Names. "Title of the Post." Title of the Blog (blog). Larger Publication. Date of Post.  URL of Post.

Germano, William. “Futurist Shock.” Lingua Franca (blog). Chronicle of Higher Education. February 15, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.‚Äč

 

General guidelines for citing specific comments on blog posts

 

Comments can usually be cited in the text, in reference to the related post. If the comment is cited in a note, list the following elements:

  • Name of the Commenter
  • Date of the comment
  • information for the related post. Use a shortened form to refer to a post that has been fully cited before.
  • URL for the comment (this is usually unnecessary but may be listed if available)

For example:

Note Number. Name of Commenter, Date of Comment, "information for the related "Post," URL.

1. Viv (Jerusalem, Isr.), January 27, 2015, comment on Amlen, “Hoot.”

2. Jim, February 16, 2017, comment on Germano, “Futurist Shock,” http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/#comment-3158909472.

Twitter, Facebook and other social media contents

 

Unless a more formal citation is needed, citations of social media content can often be limited to the text, e.g. The UON Student Central Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/UONStudentCentral) lists a number of options for students ...

Private content via social media, such as personal and friends-only contents, is considered a form of personal communication and should be cited as such. 

To cite publicly available content shared via social media in notes or bibliography, include the following elements:

  • Author of the post. List the real name (of the person, group, or institution), if known, followed by a screen name, if any, in parentheses. If only a screen name is known, use the screen name in place of the author’s name.
  • Title or text of the post. Quote as much as the first 160 characters, including spaces (the maximum length of a typical text message), capitalized as in the original. (If the post has been quoted in the text, it need not be repeated in a note.)
  • Type of post. List the name of the social media service and include a description if relevant (photo, video, etc.).
  • Date of month, day, and year. Time stamps are usually unnecessary but may be included to differentiate a post or comment from others on the same day.
  • A URL. A URL for a specific item can often be found via the date stamp, click the date/time underneath the post to be taken to an individual update page with its own URL.

 Also note:

  • Because social media content is subject to editing and deletion, authors are advised to retain a copy of anything they cite.

Comments can usually be cited in the text, in reference to the related post. If the comment is cited in a note, list the name of the commenter and the date of the comment, followed by the information for the related post. Use a shortened form to refer to a post that has been fully cited elsewhere. A URL for the comment is usually unnecessary but may be listed if available.

 

Footnote: Format and example

 

Note Number. Author of Post, "Title of post," Type of Post, Date of Post, URL of Post.

1. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

2. Conan O’Brien (@ConanOBrien), “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets,” Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448

3. Pete Souza (@petesouza), “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit,” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

4. Michele Truty, “We do need a gender-neutral pronoun,” April 17, 2015, comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they,” https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151?comment_id=10152906356479151.

 

Bibliography

 

If a bibliography entry is needed, it should be listed under the author of the post.

Author of Post"Title of post," Type of Post. Date of Post. URL of Post.

Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook. April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

O’Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets.” Twitter. April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m. https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo. April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

YouTube and other online videos

 

Streaming or other online video is digital video content made available through online/networked means. The information here is for the various free video hosting platforms such as YouTube, TED talks,  VEVO, Vimeo, Dailymotion, etc. For video content made available through subscription services such as Netflix, Kanopy, or ClickView, see the information under the source type of Films, TV, video & music on the left. 

 

The general rules to cite online videos:

  • This information is suitable to use for the various free video hosting platforms, including YouTube, TED,  VEVO, Vimeo, Dailymotion, etc.
  • If the author/poster's name is not available use the screen name.
  • The video format may be 'YouTube video', 'TED talk video' or 'MP4 video' (a downloadable file format).
  • If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed.
  • Include the full URL as the final element of the citation. The 'Share' feature on YouTube can provide a shortened, usable link.
  • Add the timestamp of the video before the URL for a direct quote, eg 0:10 (i.e. the quote starts at 10 seconds into the video).
  • If the material is a recording of a speech or performance, or if it is a digital version of a published source, include information about the original performance or source. 
  • Copies of sources that are under copyright and which have been posted without ties to any publisher or sponsor should be cited with caution. 
  • To cite comments on the videos, adapt the recommendations for citing comments on blog posts. See more via the tab for Blogs above.

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Author's First and Last Names, "Title of Video," Date of Publication, Video Format,  running time, URL.

1. Vsauce, “Is Your Red the Same as My Red?” February 17, 2013, YouTube video, 9:34,  https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=evQsOFQju08.

2.  Jamila Lyiscott, “3 Ways to Speak English,” filmed February 2014 in New York, NY, TED video, 4:29, https://www.ted.com/talks/jamila_lyiscott_3_ways_to_speak_english.

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  Author's Last Names, "Shortened Title of Video."

3. Vsauce, “Is Your Red the Same."

4. Lyiscott, “3 Ways to Speak English.

 

Bibliography

Author's Last Names, First Name. "Title of Video." Date of Publication. Video format, running time. URL. 

Vsauce. “Is Your Red the Same as My Red?” February 17, 2013YouTube video, 9:34. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= evQsOFQju08.

Lyiscott, Jamila. “3 Ways to Speak English.” Filmed February 2014 in New York, NY. TED video, 4:29. https://www.ted.com/talks/jamila_lyiscott_3_ways_to_speak_english.

Podcasts and streaming audio

 

For podcasts it's better to include the homepage URL of where you found audio stream rather than the full link. The homepage URL is more likely to be correct as time passes to allow the reader to access the podcast.

Citations of online audio content follow the same rules for citing online videos. See more details under the YouTube and online videos tab. 

The following is the general format of a reference to a podcast. See the general rules for web resources for more details.

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Author's First and Last Names, Title of Podcast, Date of Publication, Audio Series, Audio Format,  running time, URL.

1. David Van Nuys, “Growing Your Resilience with Rick Hanson PhD,” April 5, 2018, Shrink Rap Radio, podcast, MP3 audio, 1:10:51, http://shrinkrapradio.com/592-growing-your-resilience-with-rick-hanson-phd/.

2.  Andy Bowers, "We've Found The Lost City of Atlantis ... Again," November 18, 2004, National Public Radio, podcast, MP3 audio, 2:55, https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4176661.

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  Author's Last Names, "Shortened Title of Audio."

3. Van Nuys, “Growing Your Resilience."

4. Bowers, "We've Found.

 

Bibliography

Author's Last Names, First Name. "Title of Audio." Date of Publication. Audio Series. Audio format, running time. URL. 

Bowers, Andy. "We've Found The Lost City of Atlantis ... Again." November 18, 2004. National Public Radio. Podcast, MP3 audio, 2:55. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4176661.

Van Nuys, David. “Growing Your Resilience with Rick Hanson PhD.” April 5, 2018. Shrink Rap Radio. Podcast, MP3 audio, 1:10"51. http://shrinkrapradio.com/592-growing-your-resilience-with-rick-hanson-phd/.

Images taken from the web

 

For images from web pages, refer to the Images, art works, maps tables, etc page.

'Research Starters' from the Library Catalogue

 

For Research Starters accessed from the Library catalogue, refer to the Book Chapters page.

Statistics (ABS)

 

For referencing statistical information from the ABS, refer to the Other: Statistics, standards, case studies, apps, etc. page.

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