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University of Newcastle Library guides

Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography Style:  Journal articles

UON Library guide to Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography Style 17th ed.

General Rules and Examples

Journal articles

 

General rules:

Author Names

  • Appear first in the reference. Use the full names of authors and invert only the first author in bibliography.
  • Include all author names in the footnote when an article has up to 3 authors; list only the first author followed by et al. for 4 or more authors.
  • Include all author names in the bibliography when an article has up to 10 authors; list only the first 7 authors followed by et al. for more than 10 authors.
  • If the article does not have an author move the title to the author position.

Article Titles

  • Capitalise all words in the title and sub-title (except for common words - of, and, etc).
  • Article titles appear in double quotation marks.

Journal Title

  • Capitalise all words in the journal title (except for common words - of, and, etc).
  • Journal titles appear in full (not abbreviated), and in italics. e.g. Journal of Stuff.
  • An initial 'The' in the journal title is usually dropped.

Volume Number

  • Volume numbers appear immediately following the journal title and followed by a comma.
  • When a journal uses issue numbers only, without volume numbers, a comma follows the journal title.

Issue Number

  • The issue number follows the volume number, separated by a comma and preceded by no. (see example below)
  • The issue number should be included even if pagination is continuous throughout a volume or when a month or season precedes the year.
  • Where more than one issue number is included, follow the usage in the journal itself, e.g. Renaissance Drama 41, no. 1/2 (Fall 2013)

Year of Publication

  • The year, sometimes preceded by an exact date, a month, or a season, appears in parentheses after the volume and issue data. 
  • Seasons are capitalised in footnotes and bibliography. 
  • Months may be abbreviated or spelled in full ; seasons are spelled out.
  • A span of months or seasons may be cited, e.g. May/June 2015

Page Numbers

  • In footnote citations, only specific pages need be cited (unless the article as a whole is referred to).
  • Some articles from online-only journals are not assigned unique page numbers. It may be appropriate in a note to include a paragraph number (if available) or a section heading if needed. 
  • In the bibliography, include the beginning and ending page numbers of the entire article, e.g. 45-67.
  • If your article has non-consecutive page numbers (e.g. due to the structure of the journal or advertising, etc.), use only the pages relating to your article and skip the others in between (e.g. Journal of Stuff 100, no.1 (May 2018): 31-36, 38).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • Most individual articles are assigned an identifying "digital object identifier" or DOI. If a DOI is available, include it in the footnote and the bibliography. 

  • DOIs are cited in the format starting with https://doi.org/xxxxxxx, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1086/679716.

  • In the absence of a DOI, include the short form of URL or a permalink if available. If the source is located from a library database, cite by the database name instead. 

  • Check the What are DOIs? page for more information on DOIs.

Secondary Sources

For citations taken from secondary sources, see the Secondary Sources page

Journal articles with 1 author

 

The following is the general format with an example of a reference to an online journal article with one author and a DOI.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Author's First and Last Names, "Article Title: Subtitle," Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page(s) cited, https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

1. Monia Acciari, “The Italianization of Bollywood Cinema: Ad Hoc Films,” Studies in European Cinema 11, no. 1 (January 2014): 20,  https://doi.org/10.1080/17411548.2014.903099.

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  Author's Last Names "Shortened Article Title,"  page(s) cited.

2. Acciari, "Italianization of Bollywood Cinema," 23.

 

Bibliography

Author's Last Names, First Name. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Acciari, Monia. “The Italianization of Bollywood Cinema: Ad Hoc Films.” Studies in European Cinema 11, no. 1 (January 2014): 14-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/17411548.2014.903099.

Journal articles with 2 authors

 

The following is the general format of a reference to an online journal article with two authors and a DOI

See the general rules for journal articles for more details.

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Author one and Author two, "Article Title: Subtitle," Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page(s) cited, https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

1. Charlotte F. Narr and Amy C. Krist, “Host Diet Alters Trematode Replication and Elemental Composition,” Freshwater Science 34, no. 1 (March 2015): 81, https://doi-org/10.1086/679411.

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  1st Author's Last Names and 2nd Author's Last Name,  "Shortened Article Title,"  page(s) cited.

2. Narr and Krist, “Host Diet,” 88–89.

 

Bibliography

1st Author's Last Name, First Name, and 2nd Author's First name Last name. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page range. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Narr, Charlotte F., and Amy C. Krist. “Host Diet Alters Trematode Replication and Elemental Composition.” Freshwater Science 34, no. 1 (March 2015): 81–91. https://doi-org/10.1086/679411.

Journal articles with 3 authors

 

The following is the general format of a reference to an online journal article with three authors and a DOI

See the general rules for journal articles for more details.

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. 1st Author, 2nd Author, and 3rd Author, "Article Title: Subtitle," Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page(s) cited, https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

1. Kate D. L. Umbers, Matthew R. E. Symonds, and Hanna Kokko, “The Mothematics of Female Pheromone Signaling: Strategies for Aging Virgins,” American Naturalist 185, no. 3 (March 2015): 422, https://doi.org/10.1086/679614.

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  1st Author's Last Names, 2nd Author's Last Name, and 3rd Author's Last Name,  "Shortened Article Title,"  page(s) cited.

2. Umbers,  Symondsand Kokko, “Mothematics,” 424.

 

Bibliography

1st Author's Last Name, First Name, 2nd Author's First name Last name, and 3rd Author's First name Last name. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Umbers, Kate D. L., Matthew R. E. Symonds, and Hanna Kokko. “The Mothematics of Female Pheromone Signaling: Strategies for Aging Virgins.” American Naturalist 185, no. 3 (March 2015): 417–32. https://doi.org/10.1086/679614.

Journal articles with 4+ authors

 

When a journal article has 4 or more authors, list only the first author followed by et al. in footnotes. List all for up to 10 authors in bibliography; if there are more than 10 authors, list the first 7 followed by et al. 

The following is the general format of a reference to an online journal article with four authors and a DOI.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details.

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. 1st Author's First Name and Last Name et al., "Article Title: Subtitle," Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page(s) cited, https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

1. Natalia V. Gmuca et al., “The Fat and the Furriest: Morphological Changes in Harp Seal Fur with Ontogeny,” Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 88, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 158, https://doi.org/10.1086/680080.

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  1st Author's Last Names et al.,  "Shortened Article Title,"  page(s) cited.

2. Gmuca et al., “Harp Seal Fur,” 160.

 

Bibliography

1st Author's Last Name, First Name, 2nd Author's First name Last name, 3rd Author's First name Last name,  and 4th Author's First name Last name. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Gmuca, Natalia V., Linnea E. Pearson, Jennifer M. Burns, and Heather E. M. Liwanag. “The Fat and the Furriest: Morphological Changes in Harp Seal Fur with Ontogeny.” Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 88, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 158–66. https://doi-org/10.1086/680080.

Journal articles with corporate authors

 

'Corporate authors' are groups, societies or organisations who have written publications. This includes universities, research groups, museums, government departments, professional associations, and so on.

The following is the general format of a reference to an journal article by a corporate author with a DOI

See the general rules for journal articles for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Corporate Author, "Article Title: Subtitle," Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page(s) cited, https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

1. SPRINT Research Group, “A Randomized Trial of Intensive Versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control,” New England Journal of Medicine 33, no. 22 (November 2015): 2111, https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1602668.

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number. Corporate Author "Shortened Article Title,"  page(s) cited.

2. SPRINT Research Group, "Randomized Trial," 2113.

 

Bibliography

Corporate Author. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

SPRINT Research Group. “A Randomized Trial of Intensive Versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control.” New England Journal of Medicine 33, no. 22 (November 2015): 2103-16. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1602668.

Journal articles with no author listed

 

  • If the article does not have an author move the title to the author position. An initial article (A, An, or The) is ignored in alphabetising.
  • Works explicitly attributed to “Anonymous” (e.g., on the title page or at the head of the work) should be cited accordingly, e.g. 

Anonymous. “Our Family Secrets.” Annals of Internal Medicine 163, no. 4 (August 2015): 321. https://doi-org/10.7326/M14-2168.

The following is the general format of a reference to a journal article without an author.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. "Article Title: Subtitle," Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page(s) cited, https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

1. Pregnancy and Diabetes,” Hospital 48, no.1260 (September 1910): 736. 

 

Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  "Shortened Article Title,"  page(s) cited.

2. Pregnancy and Diabetes,” 737.

 

Bibliography

"Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Pregnancy and Diabetes.” Hospital 48, no.1260 (September 1910): 736-37. 

Journal articles - 'In press', advance publication, online first

 

Many journal publishers provide access to articles before they have been assigned a volume, issue or page number, referring to them as "In Press", "Advance Publication", or "Online First" articles.

It is important to re-check references prior to submitting assessment tasks in case an 'in press' article has been assigned a volume, issue and page numbers. If this is the case, ensure you re-format the citation following the guidelines on the appropriate tab on this page for the number of authors the article has.

 

Referencing 'in press' articles:

 

If an article has been accepted for publication by a journal but has not yet appeared, forthcoming stands in place of the year and the page numbers. Any article not yet accepted should be treated as an unpublished manuscript. For example:

1. John Smith, “Article Title,” Journal Title 98 (forthcoming).

Smith, John. “Article Title.” Journal Title 98 (forthcoming).

 

If an article is published by a journal electronically ahead of the official publication date, use the posted publication date. For example: 

1. Robert Jubb, “The Real Value of Equality,” Journal of Politics 77, no. 3, published ahead of print, April 14, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1086/681262.

Jubb, Robert. “The Real Value of Equality.” Journal of Politics 77, no. 3, published ahead of print, April 14, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1086/681262.

 

Where possible always refer to the final versions of your sources.

Online journal articles without a DOI

 

If an online journal article does not have a DOI assigned, add the URL at the end of the citation if the article is available freely on the web, or add the database name at the end of the citation if the article is located in a library database. For example:

 

Footnotes

1. Sarah Maddison, "Private Men, Public Anger: The Men's Rights Movement in Australia," Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies 4, no 2 (December 1999): 39-51, http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1048435.

2. Jules Brody, “Fate, Philology, Freud,” Philosophy and Literature 38, no. 1 (April 2014): 23, Project MUSE.

 

Bibliography

Brody, Jules. “Fate, Philology, Freud.” Philosophy and Literature 38, no. 1 (April 2014): 1-29. Project MUSE.

Maddison, Sarah. "Private Men, Public Anger: The Men's Rights Movement in Australia." Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies 4, no 2 (December 1999): 39-51. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1048435.

 

 

  • No retrieval date is needed for online articles.
  • Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break the URL before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
  • Include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

 

Print journal articles

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a print journal article with one author which does not have a DOI.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Author's First and Last Names, "Article Title: Subtitle," Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page(s) cited.

1. Stanley Cavell, "What Becomes of Things on Film?" Philosophy and Literature 2, no. 2 (Fall 1978): 251.

 

Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  Author's Last Names,  "Shortened Article Title,"  page(s) cited.

2. Cavell, "What Becomes of Things," 252.

 

Bibliography

Author's Last Names, First Name. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page range. 

Cavell, Stanley. "What Becomes of Things on Film?" Philosophy and Literature 2, no. 2 (Fall 1978): 249-57.

 

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