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Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography Style:  Other sources

UON Library guide to Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography Style 17th edition

Citing other sources

Select a tab above to view the general rules and examples for various other sources

  • Case studies

Chicago does not have a specific format for how to reference case studies as an individual resource - the formatting is reliant on the source material in which the case study is found, e.g. for a case study featured in a book, you would reference the book.

If required for your assignment, the case study can be specifically mentioned in your text, just add the standard notes for the source. As the case study is something specific within a larger resource, it is recommended that you add a page number to your notes to help the reader locate it.

  • Reference works 

For information on how to reference entries or chapters from reference works such as Dictionaries, Encyclopaedias, Thesaurii, Indexes, etc, see the Book chapters page.

Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.

ABS Statistics


The following is the general format of a reference to an ABS document. Add the URL if the document is found online. 

  • If the author and publisher are both Australian Bureau of Statistics, the publisher can be abbreviated to ABS.
  • If there are personal authors, cite the item by the personal authors and use the full name of publisher: Australian Bureau of Statistics. 


Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Title: Subtitle, cat. no. (Canberra: ABS, Date of Publication), page(s) cited.

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016-17, cat. no. 3218.0 (Canberra: ABS, 2018), 


Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  Australian Bureau of StatisticsShortened Title,  page(or section) cited.

2. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Regional Population Growth, New South Wales.



Australian Bureau of Statistics. Title: Subtitle. Catalog No. CanberraABS, Date of Publication. URL.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18. Cat. no. 3218.0. Canberra: ABS, 2019.


The general format (i.e. NOT Chicago specific) for referencing ABS publications is available online from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Bible and Biblical Resources


  • References to the Jewish or Christian scriptures usually appear in text citations or notes rather than in bibliographies. 
  • Parenthetical or note references to the Bible should include: book, chapter, verse and version, never a page number.
  • Chicago A includes two lists of abbreviations for books of the Bible. You may use either list, but be consistent throughout your paper.
    • The traditional abbreviations use periods and the comma to separate different chapters, eg.

1. 1 Thess. 4:11, 5:2–5, 5:14.

2. Heb. 13:8, 13:12.

3. Gen. 25:19–36:43.

  • The shorter forms do not use periods but the semi-colon to separate different chapters, eg.

4. 2 Sm 11:1–17, 11:26–27; 1 Chr 10:13–14.

5. Jo 5:9–12; Mt 26:2–5.

  • You may use either list, but be consistent throughout your paper.  
  • Books and versions of the Bible are in roman (NOT underlined, italicized, or put in "quotation marks" )
  • Names and versions of the Hebrew and Christian bibles are capitalized.
  • Books of the Bible are usually abbreviated in footnotes, but not abbreviated in the text of your paper.


Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Book. Chapter: Verse (Version).

1. 2 Kings 11:8 (New Revised Standard Version).

2. 1 Cor. 6:1–10 (NRSV).


Bibliography: not needed

Book reviews


Book reviews can be published in a variety of sources such as newspapers or journals. When citing book reviews, the general formatting is reliant on the source material in which the book review is published, but the following information should be always added after the title of the review in the format of Review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last Name.

The following is the general format with an example of a reference to a book review published in a newspaper and in an online journal.


Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Reviewer,  "Title of Review," review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last NameTitle of Source Work, vol no, issue no (Date of Publication): page(s) cited, DOI or URL. 

1. Michiko Kakutani"Zadie Smith’s ‘Swing Time’ Explores Friends’ Diverging Paths," review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith, New York Times, (November 7, 2016), 

2. Bruce R. Schatz,  "Learning by Text or Context?" review of The Social Life of Information, by John Seely Brown and Paul DuguidScience, 290, no. 5495 (November 2000), doi:10.1126/science.290.5495.1304. 


Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number.  Author's Last Names,  "Shortened Article Title," page(s) cited.

3. Kakutani, "Zadie Smith’s." 



Reviewer's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last NameTitle of Source Work, vol no, issue no (Publication Date): Page Range. DOI or URL.

Kakutani, Michiko. "Zadie Smith’s ‘Swing Time’ Explores Friends’ Diverging Paths." Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.

Schatz, Bruce R. "Learning by Text or Context?" Review of The Social Life of Information, by John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid. Science, 290, no. 5495 (November 2000):1304.

Data sets


To cite a data set, the minimum elements include the name of the dataset, a descriptive phrase or record locator (such as a data marker or accession number) indicating the part of the dataset being cited or explaining the nature of the reference, an access date, and a URL. In bibliographies, list under the name of the dataset. For example:


Footnote entry

1. GenBank (for RP11-322N14 BAC [accession number AC087526.3]; accessed July 6, 2018),


Bibliography entry

GenBank (for RP11-322N14 BAC [accession number AC087526.3]; accessed July 6, 2018).

Generative AI such as ChatGPT


Please Note:

  • It is an expectation of the University of Newcastle that all work submitted for assessment is the student's own original work. Prior permission must be obtained from a course coordinator before submitting work generated using an AI tool. 
  • Using AI tools without permission may be considered an academic integrity violation and may result in disciplinary action.
  • This page will continue to update. Check back regularly for updates on this evolving topic. 

The University of Newcastle library requires that you reference the Generative AI tool whenever you paraphrase, summarise, or quote any of the AI-generated content (text, image, data, etc.) in your assignment.

The Chicago Style Q&A recommends citing Generative AI either in your text, or in the footnote if a more formal citation is needed. No bibliography entry needed.

For a more formal citation as needed in a student paper:

  • Author: Use the AI tool as an author, e.g., ChatGPT.
  • Title: Describe what was generated by the AI tool including the prompt if it hasn’t been included in the text.
  • Publisher: Name the company that made the tool, e,g., OpenAI.
  • Date: Give the date the content was generated.
  • URL: Give the general URL for the tool, or the unique public accessible URL for the conversation if available e.g. the ChatGPT shared link.


In-text Citation Examples

  • ChatGPT wrote “A proper noun is a type of noun that refers to a specific, unique person, place, thing, or idea”.1
  • When prompted with “What are the differences between UTF-8, ISO-8859-1, US-ASCII, and Windows-1251?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that “UTF-8 is a universal encoding that can represent any character, while ISO-8859-1, US-ASCII, and Windows-1251 are limited to certain character sets.”2


Footnote Citation: Format and Examples

Author, Title, Date, Publisher, URL.

1. ChatGPT, response to “What is a proper noun?” May 8, 2023, OpenAI,

2. Text generated by ChatGPT, March 8, 2023, OpenAI,


No Bibliography Entry Needed


Related resources for more details

  • Chicago Style Q&AHow do you recommend citing content developed or generated by artificial intelligence, such as ChatGPT? Many scholarly publishers are requiring its identification though also requiring human authors to take responsibility for it and will not permit the AI to have “authorship.”
  • Chicago Style Q&AHow do you cite images generated by DALL·E?
  • Authorship and AI Tools from COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics )
  • ChatGPT Shared Links FAQ




Cite the patents under the names of the creators, followed by Patent Name, Patent no, filing date and issuing date, and the source from which the patent information can be retrieved. For example: 


Footnote entry

1. Masanori Iizuka and Hideki Tanaka, Cement Admixture, US Patent 4,586,960, filed June 26, 1984, and issued May 6, 1986,


Bibliography entry

Iizuka, Masanori, and Hideki Tanaka. Cement Admixture. US Patent 4,586,960, filed June 26, 1984, and issued May 6, 1986.

Personal communications


Personal communications may cover the following examples:

  • conversations (whether face-to-face or by telephone)
  • private letters
  • private contracts
  • wills
  • email or text messages, 
  • private messages shared through social media and received by the author.

Personal communications are usually run in to the text or given in a note. They are rarely listed in a bibliography. Most such information can be referred to simply as a conversation, message, or the like; the medium may be mentioned if relevant.

An email address or the like belonging to an individual should be omitted. Should it be needed in a specific context, it must be cited only with the permission of its owner.

Text examples:

In a conversation with the author on January 6, 2009, lobbyist Ann Adams admitted that . . .

Though inconclusive, a fifteen-second video shared with the author via Instagram by the subject’s family did suggest significant dementia.

Footnote examples:

1. Jane Smith, email message to author, April 23, 2017.

2. John Smith, Facebook direct message to author, April 30, 2017.

Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.



To cite a standard published by a specific industry group or by a national or international standards organization, include the name of the organization, the title of the standard (in italics), an edition or other identifying number or label, and publication information. Standards consulted online should include a URL. In the notes, standards can be cited by title; in a bibliography entry, list under the group or organization, even if that entity is also the publisher. 


Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Title of Standard, Standard No (Publication details), page(s) cited, URL.

1. The Storage and Handling of Corrosive Substances, AS 3780-2008 (SAI Global, 2008),

2. Bibliographic References, ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005 (Bethesda, MD: National Information Standards Organization, approved June 9, 2005; reaffirmed May 13, 2010), 3.2.2.


Shortened / Subsequent Footnote

Note Number. Shortened Standard Title,  page(s) cited.

3. The Storage and Handling, 4.



Organisation. Title of Standard. Standard No. Publication details. URL.

Standards AustraliaThe Storage and Handling of Corrosive Substances. AS 3780-2008. SAI Global, 2008.

National Information Standards Organization. Bibliographic References. ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005. Bethesda, MD: NISO, approved June 9, 2005; reaffirmed May 13, 2010.