Skip to Main Content

Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography Style:  Bibliography

UON Library guide to Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography Style 17th edition

General rules for bibliography


Basic Structure of a Bibliography Entry

  • A bibliography entry lists the author, title, and facts of publication, in that order. See an example on the CMOS site
  • Elements are separated by periods; the facts of publication are not enclosed in parentheses. 
  • Authors’ full names are used with the first author's name inverted (last name first), e.g. Smith, Adam. For multiple authors, only the first-listed name is inverted in the bibliography, e.g. Smith, Adam and Charles Fishman.
  • Titles are capitalised headline-style, e.g. Introduction to Psychology.
  • Titles of larger works (e.g., books and journals) are italicised; titles of smaller works (e.g., chapters, articles) or unpublished works are enclosed in quotation marks. 
  • Noun forms such as editor, translator, and edition are abbreviated, but verb forms such as edited by and translated by—abbreviated in a note—are spelled out in a bibliography.
  • If a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available for your source, cite the DOI instead of URL or database name 
  • Chicago does not require access dates in the citations of electronic sources unless no date of publication can be determined.


General Rules for Bibliography

  • References cited in-text may appear in the bibliography except for personal communications; they are cited in-text or in footnotes only and are not included in the bibliography.
  • May include sources you consulted but did not cite directly in your assignment.
  • Arranged in one alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or by the title if there is no author. Ignore the leading words "A","An", and "The" when alphabetising by title.
  • Each entry should be single-line spaced, with hanging indent and a blank line between entries.
  • Use “and” when citing authors’ names in bibliography, do not use “&”.
  • For multiple works by the same author, alphabetise all entries by title, and replace the author name with a 3-em dash (——) in all entries after the first, e.g. 

Germov, John. Get Great Marks for Your Essays. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin, 1996.

———. “Medifraud: A Systemic Infection Untreated." Australian Journal of Social Issues 29, no. 3 (1994): 301-04.

  • Include all author names when a publication has up to 10 authors; include the first 7 authors followed by et al. for more than 10 authors.
  • When no date is available, the abbreviation “n.d.” replaces the date
  • For secondary sources, include both the original and the secondary sources in footnotes and bibliography

For details, follow the links under How to cite at the left of this page, or use the site index there. 

Example bibliography


Chicago A features footnotes in the text, and, if needed, an alphabetical bibliography at the end of the document. 

A bibliography provides the full details of the sources cited in the text and any other sources you have consulted but not cited in your paper. 

A bibliography is usually arranged in a single alphabetical list, although it may occasionally be divided into sections if needed. 

See the example of a bibliography on the CMOS site.

Abbreviations Used in Bibliography


Abbreviations are used regularly in the bibliography. 

  • The names of months that are longer than four letters can be abbreviated or spelled out as needed. 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. and Dec.

  • Common academic abbreviations used in the bibliography: 
    • Where confusion may result, spell out the word instead.
    • The plurals of the noun abbreviations given here other than p. are formed through the addition of s (e.g. chaps. for chapters).
    • Noun forms such as editor, translator, and edition are abbreviated, but verb forms such as edited by and translated by—abbreviated in a footnote—are spelled out in a bibliography.


  Abbreviations   Terms    Abbreviations   Terms
           app.  appendix








  editor, edition



et al.

  and others




  no date


















Help and Information