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University of Newcastle Library guides

MLA Style:  Course material

UON Library guide to MLA referencing style 8th edition for UON students

Lectures & course material

Lectures and course material


General notes:

  • Course material may include lectures and PowerPoint presentations, course outlines, course notes, student assignments, or discussion posts etc. 
  • If course material is only available online via Blackboard (and not publicly accessible any other way) you may treat them as personal communication and include the reference in the text only. As it can be difficult to know for sure with some material if this is the case, the Library suggests following the patterns outlined in the tabs on this page. This also allows for full referencing of any documents used.
  • Some course material requires use of the full posting date, e.g. 4 Aug. 2018.
  • If the resource was included in a Blackboard course, include the Blackboard course name instead of the access URL.
  • If your course uses a Course Pack or Compiled Text (collection of readings) and you need to quote from it, see the tab for Course Packs & Compiled textbooks for important referencing information.

‚ÄčBe sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.

Lectures and other course material


The following is the general format of a reference to lecture notes and a reference to a student's assignment. 

See the general rules for course material for more details. 


In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name Page/s cited) ...

... (Bates 7) ...

... (Smith 8) ...


Works-cited list entry: format and example

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Other Authors' First Name Last Name.  "Title: Subtitle." Course Code Course Name, type of work, University, Date. Blackboard course.

Bates, John. “Pedagogy and Inclusion.” EDUC1010 Diversity and Inclusion in Education, lecture notes, U of Newcastle, 7 Apr. 2017. Blackboard course.

Smith, Jane. "Information Literacy in Higher Education." INFO1010 Information Technology, assignment 1 essay, U of Newcastle, 1 Apr. 2018. Blackboard course.

Course packs and compiled textbooks 


Course packs and compiled textbooks (or 'custom book editions') are collections of chapters (and/or articles) specifically chosen by course coordinators as readings for their subjects. These are specially printed for the course and then made available for sale.


How can I tell if I have a course packs or compiled textbook?

Course packs are the more obvious of the two types of books and will include your course code on the cover.

Compiled textbooks will often look more like a standard book from a regular publisher. Look for the wording "custom book" and "University of Newcastle" in prominent locations to identify them. Compiled textbooks will often also have "Compiled by ..." on the book (some may have "Edited by ..." instead).


How do I reference from these types of books?

Referencing from one of these books requires that you use the referencing information of the source being reprinted, rather than citing from the course pack or compiled textbook itself.

The required referencing information can usually be found either on the chapter/section itself or in the front of the compilation. Remember that the referencing style used in the compilation may be different to your required referencing style and that parts of the reference might be missing.

Once you have checked what type of resource has been reprinted (e.g. article, chapter from an edited book, etc.), refer to the appropriate pages on this guide.

N.B.: Be careful to quote the page numbers from the original source, not the running page numbers from the compilation. Usually the compilation numbers are easy to differentiate as they are in a banner along the top or bottom of the page.


Example compiled textbook

The compiled textbook in-hand is 'Managing Under Uncertainty'. It is made up of chapters reprinted from other books.

You should reference the original content being reprinted, not the compiled textbook - so reference the chapter from its original source, not from 'Managing Under Uncertainty'.

As an example, Chapter 2 shows that it was reprinted from 'Management: A Focus on Leaders' by Annie McKee, so reference the chapter as if you read it in the original book by Annie McKee.

Note that in these compilations some chapters may be from books (where the authors have written the whole thing), while others may be chapters from edited books (where each chapter has different authors) - you will need to confirm this for correct referencing. The information for journal articles will usually be clearer.


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