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MLA Style:  Images, art works, maps, tables, etc.

UON Library guide to MLA referencing style 8th edition for UON students

Images, art works, tables, etc.

Figures, tables, art works, maps, and other images

 

MLA style uses the terminology 'illustrations' or 'figures' when discussing images presented separately from the run of text in sources. 'Figures' includes the following image types:

  • Charts or graphs
  • Drawings or paintings
  • Maps (included in sources, see the separate Maps tab for citing standalone maps)
  • Photographs, or other art works (included in sources, see the separate Art works tab for citing the standalone art works)

Information about standalone maps, paintings, photographs, sculptures, or other works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than in a works-cited list. If such an entry is needed, see the tabs above for Maps and Art works for instructions. 

Note that tables are a separate designation with differing rules. See the Tables tab above for more information.

 

General rules: citing vs using images

 

Citing illustrations

  • When citing (not reprinting) an illustration from a book, article, or other source, cite the source first, then provide the page number where the illustration is located in the text citation, preceding the figure number, with a comma between them, e.g. ... (Smith 29, fig. 3).
  • When citing illustrations, the abbreviation fig. may be used for figure, but table, map, plate, and other illustration forms are spelled out.
  • If the source is available online, add the Database name, DOI or URL to the end of the citation if applicable.

In-text citation example: 

... (Anderson, fig. 8.1)...

Works cited list entry example:

Anderson, Catherine. Essentials of Linguistics. McMaster U, 2018, ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/essentialsoflinguistics/.

 

Using (reprinting or adapting) illustrations

  • Figures and tables taken from other sources require credit lines. A credit line is a brief statement of the source of an illustration. In addition to author, title, and publication details, the credit line should include any page or figure number. A credit line usually appears at the end of a caption of a figure, or in a source note of a table. 
  • Figures and tables must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc)  in the order in which they appear within the text, i.e. the first figure is labeled "Fig. 1", the second "Fig. 2", and so on. 
  • Refer to each figure or table in text by their number, e.g. fig. 1, table 4, etc.
  • If you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc.) you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner to include the figure or table in your work, and state the permission in the source citation as 'Reprinted with permission from ...'
  • Copyright holder may be the publisher, author/s, artists or their children, or the museums.
  • While students don't usually require publisher permission to include figures or tables in assignments, you should still include the credit line in your assignments.

Citing figures

 

Note: Figures taken from other sources require source citations and credit lines. See Using figures taken from other sources below for more details.

When citing (not reprinting) a figure from a book, article, or other source, cite the source as usual and add the page number and figure number in the text citation.  

The following is the general format of a reference to a figure in a book. If the source is available online, add the DOI or URL to the end of the citation.

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name Page/s cited, Figure No) ...

... (Anderson, fig. 8.1)...

 

Works cited list entry: format and example

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Other Author's First and Last Names.  Book Title: Subtitle. Edition, Publisher, Year. Database, DOI or URL.

Anderson, Catherine. Essentials of Linguistics. McMaster U, 2018, ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/essentialsoflinguistics/.

 

 

Using figures taken from other sources

 

If you are including a figure from another source in your assignment, you need to provide the source citation and credit lines with the figure. 

  • Copy the figure exactly as found in the original source, unless you need to adapt it.
  • Number figures consecutively in Arabic numerals (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.) as they appear in your assignment.
  • Acknowledge the original source following the caption directly underneath the figure.
  • Captions should be capitalised in sentence style.
  • In addition to author, title, publication details, and copyright statement, the credit line should include any page cited or figure number.
  • Students don't usually require publisher permission to include figures in assignments unless the assignment will be published. 

The following is an example of reprinting a figure from a book. For reusing figures from other sources, follow the citation pattern for that source

 

Fig. 1. Surgical mask (left) and N95 mask (right). Reprinted from Glynda Rees Doyle and Jodie Anita McCutcheon, Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care  (BCcampus, 2015), chap. 1.4, opentextbc.ca/clinicalskills/. Copyright 2015 by British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) (Creative Commons).

[This eBook does not use page numbers so the chapter information has been included instead. This will assist with locating the original figure].

 


Adapting or changing the figure?

 In the caption under the figure change the word 'Reprinted from' to 'Adapted from' to show that you have changed the original (even in a small way). 


 

Reproduction note: 

The figure above, reprinted from Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Carehas been reproduced under the Creative Commons License. This notice is separate from the figure so as not to confuse the referencing in the figure caption.

Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care by Glynda Rees Doyle and Jodie Anita McCutcheon: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citing maps

 

Note: Maps taken from other sources as illustrations require captions and credit lines. See details under Figures taken from other sources via the Figures - citing or reprinting tab above. 

In general, citing a standalone map is similar to citing a book, with the descriptive label Map added after the title; citing a map from other sources follows the pattern for citing the source, or a chapter from the source, in the work-cited list, and providing the page/map number cited in the text citation.

Undated maps consulted online should include an access or revision date.

The following is the general format and examples of citing a print standalone map, a Google map, and an online historical map

See general rules for images for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Cartographer's Last Name Part cited) ...

... the map (Michigan) shows that...

... as shown in the Google Earth(Satellite view of Newcastle) ...

... the historic view of Yosemite (US Geological Survey ) ...

 

Works cited list entry: format and example

Cartographer's Last Name, First Name. Title: Subtitle. Map. Publisher, Year.  Location of Map, URL.

Michigan. Map. Rand, 2000.

Satellite view of Newcastle. Map. Google Earth, accessed July 30, 2018, www.google.com/maps/@-32.9546526,151.6396797,36081m/data=!3m1!1e3!. 

US Geological Survey. California: Yosemite Quadrangle. Map. National Map, Historic Topographic Map Collection, 1909, www.usgs.gov/media/images/scan-1909-usgs-quadrangle-yosemite-california-area-include-el-capitan-usgs-historic.

Art works

 

To cite a painting, lithograph, photograph, sculpture, or similar work, list the artist, the title (in italics), and a date of creation or completion, followed by information about the medium and the location of the work. For works consulted online, add a URL. 

An exhibition catalog or brochure is often published as a book and is treated as such. 

Artworks taken from other sources as illustrations require captions and credit linesSee details under Figures taken from other sources via the Figures - citing or reprinting tab above.

The following is the general format of a reference to an art work. 

See general rules for images for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Artist's Last Name Part cited if applicable) ...

... (Picasso) ...

... (Dalí) ...

 

Works-cited list entry: format and example

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title. Date. Medium, Location of work, URL if applicable. 

Dalí, Salvador. The Persistence of Memory. 1931. Oil on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York, www.moma.org/collection/works/79018.

Picasso, Pablo. Bull’s Head. 1942. Bicycle saddle and handlebars, Musée Picasso Paris.

 

Citing tables 

 

Note: Tables taken from other sources require source notes and credit lines. See Tables taken from other sources below for more details.

When citing (not reprinting) a table from a book, an article, or other source, provide the page number where the table is located in the text citation, preceding the table number, with a comma between them.  

The following is the general format of a reference to a table in a book. For tables from other sources, follow the pattern for citing that source. If the source is available online, add the DOI or URL to the end of citation in the works-cited list.

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name page cited, table number) ...

... (Chavas et al. 167, table 4.4) ...

 

Works cited list entry: format and example (i.e. cite the source normally)

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Other Author's First and Last Names. Book Title: Subtitle. Edition, Publisher, Date of Publication. 

Chavas, Jean-Paul, et al., editors. The Economics of Food Price Volatility. U of Chicago P, 2014.

 

Tables taken from other sources
 

If you are including a table from another source within an assignment, you need provide the source notes with the table. 

  • Copy the table exactly as found in the original source, unless you need to adapt it (see information below).
  • The table number and title go above the table, see the example below.
  • Acknowledge the original source within a source note included directly underneath the table.
  • Begin with the word 'Source:' followed by the reference of the source, see the example below.
  • If you have adapted or borrowed the data from the table, you may add the following after 'Source:'
    • 'Adapted from' if you have adapted or changed the table; or
    • 'Data from' if you have used the data from another source in your own table.
  • In addition to author, title, publication details and copyright statement, the source note should include any page and/or table number.
  • Students don't usually require publisher permission to include tables in assignments unless the assignment will be published. 
  • If you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc.) you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner to reuse the table in your work. See details via the tab for Writing for publication above.

 

The following is an example of reprinting a table from a book. For reusing tables from other sources, follow the citation pattern for that source

 

Table 1

Nursing Interventions for the Stages of Dying

Source: Susan E. Lowey, Nursing Care at the End of Life. Open SUNY Textbooks, 2015, table 3.1, pressbooks.opensuny.org/nursingcare. Copyright 2015 by Susan E. Lowey (Creative Commons).

 

 

Reproduction note: 

The table above, reprinted from Nursing Care at the End of Life has been reproduced under the Creative Commons License. This notice is separate from the table so as not to confuse the referencing in the table notes.

Nursing Care at the End of Life by Susan. E. Lowey: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Using figures and tables from other sources when writing for publication

 

If you are including a figure or table you found in another source, and you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc) you must:

  • Obtain written permission from the copyright owner to include the figure or table in your work.
  • Copy the figure or table exactly as found in the original source, unless you need to adapt it.
  • Acknowledge the original source within the figure caption or table note as 'Reprinted with permission from...'.
  • This is the case even if you change or adapt something in the figure or table, use 'Adapted with permission from' if applicable. 

 

Figure example taken from a journal article:

An example is shown below using the template for a figure from a journal article. The pattern follows the style of caption for your image source, plus a notice of permission, the source citation, and the copyright statement. 

For figures from other sources, follow the pattern for the source and add the required notice of permission and copyright statement.


Image

Fig. 1. The clinical reasoning process with descriptors.  Reprinted with permission from Tracy Levett-Jones, et al., “The Five Rights of Clinical Reasoning: An Educational Model to Enhance Nursing Students' Ability to Identify and Manage Clinically 'At Risk' Patients,” Nurse Education Today, vol. 30, no. 6, Aug. 2010, p. 158. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier. 

 

Table example taken from a journal article:

An example is shown below using the template for a table from a journal article. The pattern follows the style of note for your image source, plus a notice of permission after the copyright statement: "Copyright 2010 by Elsevier. Reprinted with permission.".

For tables from other sources, follow the pattern for that source and add the required notice of permission and copyright statement.

 

Table 1. 

The Difference Between Cue Collection in Experienced and Novice Nurses

Table
Source: Tracy Levett-Jones, et al., “The Five Rights of Clinical Reasoning: An Educational Model to Enhance Nursing Students' Ability to Identify and Manage Clinically 'At Risk' Patients,” Nurse Education Today, vol. 30, no. 6, Aug. 2010, p. 518. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier. 

 


 

Adapting or changing the figure or table?

 In the caption under the figure (or source note under the table) change the wording 'Reprinted with permission from' to 'Adapted with permission from' to show that you have changed the original (even in a small way).

 

 


Reproduction note: 

The figure and table above, reprinted from Nurse Education Today, have been reproduced with permission. This notice is separate from the figure and table so as not to confuse the referencing in the figure caption and table note.

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