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University of Newcastle Library guides

MLA Style:  Web resources

UON Library guide to MLA referencing style 8th edition for UON students

General Rules and Examples

Web resources

 

General rules:

  • A website refers to the collection of web pages available on the internet. 
  • A website can host a blog or other digital media content.
  • For specific type of web resources see the tabs above. 
  • It is often sufficient simply to describe website content in the text unless there is a need for a reference list entry.

Author Names

  • Full author names (including the screen name) appear first in the reference. 
  • If the web content does not have an author, move the title to the author position.
  • Omit the author element when it is the same as the publisher. 

Titles

  • Titles of websites are capitalised headline-style without quotation marks.
  • Titled sections or pages of a website are usually placed in quotation marks. 
  • The titles of blogs can usually be set in italics; titles of blog posts are placed in quotation marks.
  • Social media content is usually untitled. If needed for the purposes of citation, the text of a post itself (either in part or as a whole) can stand in as the title.
  • The word website (or web page) may be added (in parentheses) after the title or description of the site if the nature of the source is otherwise unclear.

Publisher

  • Omit the publisher for a web site whose title is essentially the same as the name of its publisher. 
  • For a pre-1900 work, you may cite the city of publication in place of the publisher's name.

Year and Date of Publication

  • Include the date (day month year) of publication, or revision, or last updated, e.g. last updated 4 Dec. 2018. 
  • Access date is optional. When the publication/revision date is unknown, include the access date, e.g. accessed 21 July 2018.

DOI or URL

  • Include the DOI if available or the URL as the last element of the citation.
  • Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break the URL before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
  • Remove the University proxy (ezproxy.newcastle.edu.au) from any link used.
  • Include a full-stop after the DOI or URL at the end of the reference.

Secondary Sources

For citations taken from secondary sources, see Secondary sources.

Citing websites and webpages

 

For web resources other than web sites and web pages, see the tabs above. 

 

To cite a website as a whole or to discuss it in general terms in your assignment, it is often sufficient simply to describe the website in the text (e.g. The WHO website (www.who.int/) is accessible in six languages and ...), and a short URL can be used e.g. the URL www.apple.com might be referred to in running text as apple.com.

If a more formal citation for a website or webpage is needed in the works-cited list, follow the instructions below:

  • Cite the websites or webpages by the author. 
  • Omit the author element when it is the same as the publisher. 
  • Omit the publisher for a web site whose title is essentially the same as the name of its publisher. 
  • For webpages without author/s, the title becomes the main entry – use a short title in the in-text citation, and the full title in the works-cited list.
  • Website titles are capitalized headline-style in italics without quotation marks.
  • Titles of webpages or a section of a website are capitalized headline-style and placed in quotation marks.
  • Add the access date when the publication date is unknown.

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a web page.  See general rules for web resources for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name page/s cited if available) ...

... the books (Vallen) ...

 

Works-cited list entry: format and example

Author's Last name, First Name. "Webpage Title." Title of Website, Owner/Publisher of Website, Date of Publication, URL.

Vallen, Anna. "12 Books Every Australian Should Read." Australian Geographic, Australian Geographic Society, 26 Feb 2016, www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/history-culture/2016/02/12-books-every-australian-should-read.

 

 

 

Citing online documents

 

This information is for general documents found online, that are not covered elsewhere in this guide.

N.B. For the following document types, refer to their specialist pages:

Citing online documents is similar to citing websites with document titles capitalized headline-style in italics without quotation marks, and the access date added when the publication date is unknown.

The following is the general format of a reference to an online document.  See general rules for web resources for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name page/s cited if available) ...

... kangaroo (Morre 2) ...

 

Works-cited list entry: format and example

Author's Last name, First Name. Title of Document, Publisher, Date of Publication, URL.

Moore, Bruce. The Vocabulary of Australian English. Australian National Dictionary Centre, Australian National U, slll.cass.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/andc/vocab_aussie_eng.pdf. Accessed 19 Apr. 2019. 

 

Note: Add the access date when the publication date is unknown.

Press releases

 

A press release, also called news release, or media release, is an official statement on a particular matter by a news agent or organisation. Press releases are generally cited in the text only unless there is a need for a works-cited list entry.

  • Titles of press releases should be capitalised in headline style within quotation marks.
  • Provide a description of the press release or media release after the title.
  • Include the full date of publication (Month Day, Year). 

The following is the general format of a reference to a press release. 

See general rules for web resources for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Corporate Author page/s cited if available) ...

... (Australian Bureau of Statistics) ...

 

Works-cited list entry: format and example

Corporate Author.  "Press Release Title." Press release no, Publisher, Date of Release, URL.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. "More Than One Million Australians Change Jobs." Media release cat. no. 6226.0, ABS, 9 Aug. 2018, www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/latestProducts/6226.0Media%20Release5February%202018.

 

 

Citing blogs, blog posts, and comments

 

A blog is a web-based forum that consists of posted entries organized by date or topic, and usually accompanied by readers’ comments. 

Note that the distinction between a blog and a website is often unclear; when in doubt, treat the title like that of a website.

 

General guidelines

  • References to an entire blog should be made in the text rather than in a works-cited list. The URL can be listed in parentheses, e.g.

Lingua Franca, a blog published by the Chronicle of Higher Education (www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/) . . .

  • Comments are not included in works-cited list; instead, they should be cited in the text, in reference to the related post.
  • ‚ÄčIt is often sufficient to cite blog posts entirely within the text unless a works-cited list entry is needed.

 

To cite a blog post, include the following elements:

  • Author of the post.
  • Title of the post, in quotation marks.
  • Title of the blog, in italics, followed by '(blog)' unless the word blog is part of the title.
  • Title of the larger publication (if the blog is part of a larger publication) in italics.
  • Date of the post in the format of Day Month Year.
  • URL of the blog post.

 Note:

  • Blogs that are part of a larger publication should also include the name of that publication. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Post Author page/s cited if available) ...

... (Germano) ...

... (Hollmichel) ...

 

Works-cited list entry: format and example

Author's Last name, First Name.  "Title of the Post." Title of the Blog (blog)Larger Publication, Date of Post,  URL of Post.

Germano, William. “Futurist Shock.” Lingua Franca (blog). Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 Feb. 2017, www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.

Hollmichel, Stefanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences Between Digital and Print." Weeds: Simply Feisty Seeds, 25 Apr. 2013, somanybooksblog.com/2013/04/25/the-reading-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print/.

 

Twitter, Facebook and other social media contents

 

  • Unless a more formal citation is needed, citations of social media content can often be limited to the text, e.g. The UON Student Central Facebook page (www.facebook.com/UONStudentCentral) lists a number of options for students ...
  • Private content via social media, such as personal and friends-only contents, is considered a form of personal communication and should be cited as such. 
  • Comments can usually be cited in the text, in reference to the related post. 

To cite publicly available content shared via social media in the works-cited list, include the following elements:

  • Author of the post. Real name and/or screen name if available.
  • Title or text of the post. 
  • Type of post. List the name of the social media service and include a description if relevant (photo, video, etc.).
  • Date (Day Month Year) of the post. Time stamps as needed to differentiate a post or comment from others on the same day.
  • A URL. A URL for a specific item can often be found via the date stamp, click the date/time underneath the post to be taken to an individual update page with its own URL.

 Also note:

  • Because social media content is subject to editing and deletion, authors are advised to retain a copy of anything they cite.

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name Page/s cited if available) ...

... (O’Brien) ...

... (Souza) ...

 

Works-cited list entry: format and example

Author of Post "Title of post." Type of Post, Date of Post. URL of Post.

O’Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets.” Twitter, 22 Apr. 2015, 11:10 a.m. twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, 1 Apr. 2016. www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

YouTube and other free online videos

 

Streaming or other online video refers to digital video content made available through online/networked means. The information here is for the various free video hosting platforms such as YouTube, TED talks,  VEVO, Vimeo, Dailymotion, etc. For video content made available through subscription services such as Netflix, Kanopy, or ClickView, see the information under Films, TV, video & music

 

The general rules to cite online videos:

  • This information is suitable to use for the various free video hosting platforms, including YouTube, TED,  VEVO, Vimeo, Dailymotion, etc.
  • If the author/poster's real name is not available use the screen name.
  • The video format may be 'YouTube video', 'TED talk video' or 'MP4 video' (a downloadable file format).
  • If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed.
  • Include the full URL as the final element of the citation. The 'Share' feature on YouTube can provide a shortened, usable link.
  • Add the timestamp of the video for a direct quote, eg 0:10 (i.e. the quote starts at 10 seconds into the video).
  • If the material is a recording of a speech or performance, or if it is a digital version of a published source, include information about the original performance or source if needed.
  • Copies of sources that are under copyright and which have been posted without ties to any publisher or sponsor, should be cited with caution. 
  • Comments on the videos can usually be cited in the text, in reference to the related video. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name Timestamp cited ) ...

... (Vsauce 2:13) ...

... (Lyiscott 1:14) ...

 

Works-cited list entry: format and example

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Video." Video hostDate of Publication, URL. 

Vsauce. “Is Your Red the Same as My Red?” YouTube, 17 Feb. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=evQsOFQju08.

Lyiscott, Jamila. “3 Ways to Speak English.” TED video, filmed Feb. 2014, www.ted.com/talks/jamila_lyiscott_3_ways_to_speak_english.

Podcasts and streaming audio

 

Citations of online audio content follow the same rules as for citing online videos. See more details under the YouTube and online videos tab. 

For podcasts it's better to include the homepage URL of where you found the audio stream rather than the full link. The homepage URL is more likely to be correct as time passes to allow the reader to access the podcast.

The following is the general format of a reference to a podcast. See general rules for web resources for more details.

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name Timestamp cited) ...

... (Bowers 1:04) ...

... (Van Nuys 20:38) ...

 

Works-cited list entry: format and example

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Audio."  Audio Series, audio format, Date of Publication, URL. 

Bowers, Andy.  "We've Found The Lost City of Atlantis ... Again." National Public Radio, podcast, 18 Nov. 2004, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4176661.

Van Nuys, David. “Growing Your Resilience with Rick Hanson PhD.” Shrink Rap Radio, podcast, 5 Apr. 2018, shrinkrapradio.com/592-growing-your-resilience-with-rick-hanson-phd/.

Images taken from the web

 

For images from web pages, refer to Images, art works, maps, tables, etc.

'Research Starters' from the Library Catalogue

 

For Research Starters accessed from the Library catalogue, refer to Book chapters.

Statistics (ABS)

 

For referencing statistical information from the ABS, refer to Other: statistics, standards, etc. 

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