Year and Date of Publication
DOI or URL
For citations taken from secondary sources, see Secondary sources.
To cite a website as a whole or to discuss it in general terms in your assignment, it is often sufficient simply to describe the website in the text (e.g. The WHO website (www.who.int/) is accessible in six languages and ...), and a short URL can be used e.g. the URL www.apple.com might be referred to in running text as apple.com.
If a more formal citation for a website or webpage is needed in the works-cited list, follow the instructions below:
The following is the general format of a reference to a web page. See general rules for web resources for more details.
... (Author's Last Name page/s cited if available) ...
... the books (Vallen) ...
Author's Last name, First Name. "Webpage Title." Title of Website, Owner/Publisher of Website, Date of Publication, URL.
Vallen, Anna. "12 Books Every Australian Should Read." Australian Geographic, Australian Geographic Society, 26 Feb 2016, www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/history-culture/2016/02/12-books-every-australian-should-read.
This information is for general documents found online, that are not covered elsewhere in this guide.
N.B. For the following document types, refer to their specialist pages:
Citing online documents is similar to citing websites with document titles capitalized headline-style in italics without quotation marks, and the access date added when the publication date is unknown.
The following is the general format of a reference to an online document. See general rules for web resources for more details.
... (Author's Last Name page/s cited if available) ...
... kangaroo (Morre 2) ...
Author's Last name, First Name. Title of Document. Publisher, Date of Publication, URL.
Moore, Bruce. The Vocabulary of Australian English. Australian National Dictionary Centre, Australian National U, slll.cass.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/andc/vocab_aussie_eng.pdf. Accessed 19 Apr. 2019.
Note: Add the access date when the publication date is unknown.
A press release, also called news release, or media release, is an official statement on a particular matter by a news agent or organisation. Press releases are generally cited in the text only unless there is a need for a works-cited list entry.
The following is the general format of a reference to a press release.
See general rules for web resources for more details.
... (Corporate Author page/s cited if available) ...
... (Australian Bureau of Statistics) ...
Corporate Author. "Press Release Title." Press release no, Publisher, Date of Release, URL.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. "More Than One Million Australians Change Jobs." Media release cat. no. 6226.0, ABS, 9 Aug. 2018, www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/latestProducts/6226.0Media%20Release5February%202018.
A blog is a web-based forum that consists of posted entries organized by date or topic, and usually accompanied by readers’ comments.
Note that the distinction between a blog and a website is often unclear; when in doubt, treat the title like that of a website.
Lingua Franca, a blog published by the Chronicle of Higher Education (www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/) . . .
To cite a blog post, include the following elements:
... (Post Author page/s cited if available) ...
... (Germano) ...
... (Hollmichel) ...
Author's Last name, First Name. "Title of the Post." Title of the Blog (blog). Larger Publication, Date of Post, URL of Post.
Germano, William. “Futurist Shock.” Lingua Franca (blog). Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 Feb. 2017, www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.
Hollmichel, Stefanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences Between Digital and Print." Weeds: Simply Feisty Seeds, 25 Apr. 2013, somanybooksblog.com/2013/04/25/the-reading-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print/.
To cite publicly available content shared via social media in the works-cited list, include the following elements:
... (Author's Last Name Page/s cited if available) ...
... (O’Brien) ...
... (Souza) ...
Author of Post. "Title of post." Type of Post, Date of Post. URL of Post.
O’Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets.” Twitter, 22 Apr. 2015, 11:10 a.m. twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.
Souza, Pete (@petesouza). “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, 1 Apr. 2016. www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
Streaming or other online video refers to digital video content made available through online/networked means. The information here is for the various free video hosting platforms such as YouTube, TED talks, VEVO, Vimeo, Dailymotion, etc. For video content made available through subscription services such as Netflix, Kanopy, or ClickView, see the information under Films, TV, video & music.
... (Author's Last Name Timestamp cited ) ...
... (Vsauce 2:13) ...
... (Lyiscott 1:14) ...
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Video." Video host, Date of Publication, URL.
Vsauce. “Is Your Red the Same as My Red?” YouTube, 17 Feb. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=evQsOFQju08.
Lyiscott, Jamila. “3 Ways to Speak English.” TED video, filmed Feb. 2014, www.ted.com/talks/jamila_lyiscott_3_ways_to_speak_english.
Citations of online audio content follow the same rules as for citing online videos. See more details under the YouTube and online videos tab.
For podcasts it's better to include the homepage URL of where you found the audio stream rather than the full link. The homepage URL is more likely to be correct as time passes to allow the reader to access the podcast.
The following is the general format of a reference to a podcast. See general rules for web resources for more details.
... (Author's Last Name Timestamp cited) ...
... (Bowers 1:04) ...
... (Van Nuys 20:38) ...
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Audio." Audio Series, audio format, Date of Publication, URL.
Bowers, Andy. "We've Found The Lost City of Atlantis ... Again." National Public Radio, podcast, 18 Nov. 2004, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4176661.
Van Nuys, David. “Growing Your Resilience with Rick Hanson PhD.” Shrink Rap Radio, podcast, 5 Apr. 2018, shrinkrapradio.com/592-growing-your-resilience-with-rick-hanson-phd/.
For images from web pages, refer to Images, art works, maps, tables, etc.
For referencing statistical information from the ABS, refer to the Other sources page.