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University of Newcastle Library guides

MLA Style:  Messages, email (Personal comm)

UON Library guide to MLA referencing style 8th edition for UON students

Personal communication

Personal communication

 

Personal communications may cover the following examples:

  • conversations (whether face-to-face or by telephone)
  • private letters
  • private contracts
  • wills
  • email or text messages
  • private messages shared through social media and received by the author

Personal communications are usually run into the text or given in a parenthetical citation only.

Works-cited list entries are not needed. Most such information can be referred to simply as a conversation, message, unpublished data, or the like; the medium may be mentioned if relevant. Initials may be used for first names.

An email address or the like belonging to an individual should be omitted. Should it be needed in a specific context, it must be cited only with the permission of its owner.

For examples:

In a conversation with the author on January 6, 2009, lobbyist Ann Adams admitted that . . .

Though inconclusive, a fifteen-second video shared with the author via Instagram by the subject’s family did suggest significant dementia.

... (Julie Cantor, pers. comm.) ...
... (Jonathan Lee, Facebook direct message to author, May 5, 2017) ...
... (Brenda Hasbrouck, text message to author, May 5, 2017) ...

... (C. R. Brown and M. B. Brown, unpublished data) ...

 

Works cited list entries are not needed.

Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.

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