Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
See the general rules for in-text citations for more details:
(Author's Surname page cited)
Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (Dempsey 22).
(1st Author's Surname and 2nd Author's Surname page cited)
...new technologies need to be evaluated before large scale investment is made by organisations (Marra and Edmond 31).
(1st Author's Surname et al. page cited)
... the role for adult literacy partnerships (Black et al. 151) ...
If the source has no author, cite the work by its short title, including the first word (other than an initial article). The short title should be up to 4 words in the proper format (the same format as the title in the works-cited list, e.g. if the source is a smaller part of a larger publication, such as journal articles, book chapters, or web pages, enclose the title in double quotation marks; if the source is a book, brochure, web site or report, italicise the title.
See the general rules for in-text citations for more details:
("Short Title" page cited)
... to avoid visiting the doctor ("Australians Turning to Dr Google" 16).
(Short Title page cited)
... a memorial to all Australians who lost their lives in service during the First World War (Anzac Memorial 12) ...
If the source is a corporate author (e.g. a university, association, or government department) include the corporate author's name within the in-text citation, plus the page/s cited, in the format:
(Corporate Author Page cited)
... thousands of teachers, principals, early childhood workers and academics have graduated and gone on to make their mark in and out of the classroom in communities (University of Newcastle 19).
If an author's name is known by a common acronym (e.g. ABS for Australian Bureau of Statistics, WHO for World Health Organization), include the full name, plus the acronym in the first in-text citation, in the format:
(Corporate Author (CA) Page cited)
"Over half of people aged 15 years and older (56%) considered their overall health to be very good or excellent, and 29% stated that their health was good" (Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 3).
In subsequent references, include just the acronym:
(CA Page cited)
... 19% of people aged 18 years and over were current daily smokers (ABS 12).
Whenever you reference works by authors who SHARE the SAME SURNAME, but who are in fact different people:
Adding the initial to the author names helps readers avoid confusion with the in-text referencing and allows easier location of entries in your reference list.
For citing multiple works by the SAME author, include a short title of the source after a comma to differentiate the references.
If you need to cite more than one publication within an in-text citation, list all the sources alphabetically separating each citation with a semicolon.
...several reviews (Featherstone 12; Gates 21; Muldoon 124) have found that...
Citations of different locations in a single source are separated by commas:
For example: ... (Baron 194, 200, 197-98)...
If you need to cite two or more publications by the same author, add the short titles joined by and for two titles, or commas and and before the last title for more than two publications.
...reading and the physical media (Baron, "Redefining" 194 and Words Onscreen 203) ...
...the digital world, reading, and the physical media (Baron, Always On, "Redefining," and Words Onscreen) ...
If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word, from a source, the in-text citation must include the author and page numbers where the quotation appeared if available. Direct quotations must be accurate and follow the wording, spelling and punctuation of the original source.
The in-text citation for a short quotation (no more than 4 lines enclosed in quotation marks) is placed after the closing quotation mark, before the full stop. If the author is mentioned in the text, only the page cited appears in the citation. For example:
Reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (Baron 194). ...
According to Naomi Baron, reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (194). ...
For a long quotation (more than 4 lines) that is set in a separate block off from the text (block quotation, indented, without quotation marks), type a space after the concluding punctuation mark of the quotation and insert the in-text citation. There is no punctuation before or after the citation. For example:
The forms of writing that accompany reading
can fill various roles. The simplest is to make parts of a text prominent (by underlining, highlighting, or adding asterisks, lines, or squiggles). More-reflective responses are notes written in the margins or in an external location--a notebook or a computer file. (Baron 194)
A quotation may be shortened from that included in the original source by including three spaced ellipses points (...) within the quotation to indicate where the omitted words had been included.
Whereas, other researchers "believe that the third stage of labour is a much neglected stage in the process of labour ... and it deserves much greater attention" (Harris and Clark 856).
If your source uses explicit part numbers rather than pages numbers, as some web resources do, give the relevant number or numbers, preceded by the label, e.g.
Separate the author and the part number with a comma, e.g. (Smith, par. 3)
If the source includes headings, but not paragraph or page numbers, you may use the section heading, e.g. James concludes "bullying is at epidemic levels in organizations which do not display strong leadership at the top" (sec. Discussion).
When a source has no page number or any other kind of part number, no number should be given in an in-text citation. Do not count unnumbered paragraph or other parts.
Quotations of Prose
If a prose quotation runs no more than four lines, put it in quotations marks and incorporate it into the text. If a quotation ending a sentence requires a parenthetical reference, place the sentence period after the reference, e.g.
For Charles Dickens the eighteenth century was both “the best of times” and “the worst of times” (35).
If a quotation extends to more than four lines when run into your text, set it off from the text as a block indented half an inch from the left margin. A parenthetical reference follows the last line of the quotation.
Quotations of Poetry
If you quote up to three lines of verse, put it in quotation marks within your text, using a forward slash (/) to indicate a line break, and double slashes (//) for a stanza break.
Verse quotations of more than three lines should be set off from your text as a block, indented half an inch from the left margin.
A verse quotation may require citing line and other division numbers, a page number, or no number, depending on its length and whether it is published in editions with numbered lines.
Sources cited within another source are known as 'secondary sources'. In-text citations to secondary sources must name the original source, and provide a citation for the secondary source after qtd. in.
For example, Grieve and Gear’s work from 1966 is being quoted in Kirtley’s 2006 book on page 23. If we could not access the original Grieve and Gear’s work from 1966, we could reference it as a secondary source:
… the pattern (Grieve and Gear qtd. in Kirtley 23) ... or ... Grieve and Gear (qtd. in Kirtley 23) suggest a pattern of ...
In the works-cited list, list the work you have actually consulted, i.e. Kirtley’s 2006 book, not Grieve and Gear’s work from 1966.
By following this pattern we are crediting the original author while being able to reference the source we are actually using.
For more information see Secondary sources.
There may be times when you need to use the same reference multiple times in consecutive sentences (or even a whole paragraph) where there are no other references to break up the in-text citations. To make your citations more concise, you can use one of the following techniques:
No matter which way you cite it, make it clear that the information or quotations are borrowed from the source cited.
In a slide-based presentation using software such as PowerPoint or Keynote, when you borrow material (quotations, paraphrases, images, videos, and whatever else you copy or adapt), you may provide the citations by:
In a video, you might overlay text at the bottom of the screen to provide your viewers with brief information about what they are seeing (e.g. the producer and title of a borrowed video clip, or the name of a person being interviewed), and include full documentation in your closing credits.
In a project on the Web, you might link from your citations to the online material you cite, and add a works-cited list as an appendix to the project.