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MLA Style:  Other sources

UON Library guide to MLA referencing style 8th edition for UON students

Other sources

Select a tab to view the general rules and examples for various other sources.


Case studies

MLA does not have a specific format for how to reference case studies as an individual resource.

The formatting is reliant on the source material in which the case study is found, e.g. for a case study featured in a book, you would reference the book.

If required for your assignment, the case study can be specifically mentioned in your text, just add the standard citation for the source. As the case study is something specific within a larger resource, it is recommended that you add a page number to your in-text citation to help the reader locate it.

Reference works

 For information on how to reference entries or chapters from reference works such as:

  • Dictionaries
  • Encyclopaedias
  • Thesauri
  • Indexes, etc.

see Book chapters.

Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.

Book reviews


Book reviews can be published in a variety of sources such as newspapers or journals. When citing book reviews, the general formatting is reliant on the source material in which the book review is published, but the following information should always be added after the title of the review in the format of Review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last Name.


The general format for citing a book review:

Reviewer's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last NameTitle of Source WorkPublication Details, Page Range. DOI or URL.



Kakutani, Michiko. "Zadie Smith’s ‘Swing Time’ Explores Friends’ Diverging Paths." Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, 7 Nov. 2016.

Schatz, Bruce R. "Learning by Text or Context?" Review of The Social Life of Information, by John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid. Science, vol. 290, no. 5495, Nov. 2000, p. 1304. doi:10.1126/science.290.5495.1304.



Cite the patents under the names of the creators, followed by the patent name, patent number, filing date and issuing date, and the source from which the patent information can be retrieved. 


In-text citation: format and example

... (Creator's Last Name parts cited if applicable) ...

... (Iizuka and Tanaka) ...


Works cited list entry: format and example

Creator's Last Name, First Name. Patent Name. Patent No, issuing Date. DatabaseDOI or URL.

Iizuka, Masanori, and Hideki Tanaka. Cement Admixture. US Patent 4,586,960, issued May 6, 1986,

Personal communications


Personal communications may cover the following examples:

  • conversations (whether face-to-face or by telephone)
  • private letters
  • private contracts
  • wills
  • email or text messages
  • private messages shared through social media and received by the author

Personal communications are usually run into the text or given in a parenthetical citation only.

Works-cited list entries are not needed. Most such information can be referred to simply as a conversation, message, unpublished data, or the like; the medium may be mentioned if relevant. Initials may be used for first names.

An email address or the like belonging to an individual should be omitted. Should it be needed in a specific context, it must be cited only with the permission of its owner.

For examples:

In a conversation with the author on January 6, 2009, lobbyist Ann Adams admitted that . . .

Though inconclusive, a fifteen-second video shared with the author via Instagram by the subject’s family did suggest significant dementia.

... (Julie Cantor, pers. comm.) ...
... (Jonathan Lee, Facebook direct message to author, May 5, 2017) ...
... (Brenda Hasbrouck, text message to author, May 5, 2017) ...

... (C. R. Brown and M. B. Brown, unpublished data) ...


Works cited list entries are not needed.

Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.



To cite a standard published by a specific industry group, or by a national or international standards organization, include the name of the organization, the title of the standard (in italics), an edition or other identifying number or label, and publication information.

Standards consulted online should include a URL. 

In the works-cited list, list the standard under the group or organization, even if that entity is also the publisher. 


In-text citation: format and example

... (Organisation Part cited) ...

... (Standards Australia) ...


Works cited list entry: format and example

Organisation. Title of Standard. Standard Number, Publisher, Year. DatabaseURL.

Standards Australia. The Storage and Handling of Corrosive Substances. AS 3780-2008, SAI Global, 2008. Australian Standards

National Information Standards Organization. Bibliographic References. ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005, NISO, approved June 9, 2005; reaffirmed May 13, 2010.

Statistics (ABS)


The following is the general format of a reference to an ABS document. Add the URL if the document is found online. 

  • If the Australian Bureau of Statistics is both the author and publisher, begin the entry with the title, skipping the author element, and list Australian Bureau of Statistics only as the publisher.
  • If there are personal authors, cite the item by the personal authors and use the full name of the publisher: Australian Bureau of Statistics. 


In-text citation: format and example

... (Short Title Part cited) ...

... (Regional Population) ...


Works cited list entry: format and example

Title: Subtitle. Catalog No, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Year, URL.

Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18. Cat. no. 3218.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019,


The general format (i.e. NOT MLA specific) for referencing ABS publications is available online from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Generative AI such as ChatGPT


Please Note:

  • It is an expectation of the University of Newcastle that all work submitted for assessment is the student's own original work. Prior permission must be obtained from a course coordinator before submitting work generated using an AI tool. 
  • Using AI tools without permission may be considered an academic integrity violation and may result in disciplinary action.
  • This page will continue to update. Check back regularly for updates on this evolving topic. 

The University of Newcastle library requires that you reference the Generative AI tool whenever you paraphrase, summarise, or quote any of the AI-generated content (text, image, data, etc.) in your assignment.

The MLA Style Center recommends citing Generative AI using the MLA template.

  • Author: MLA does not recommend treating the AI tool as an author. When no author identified, start the reference with Title.
  • Title of Source: Describe what was generated by the AI tool including the prompts if needed.
  • Title of Container: Use the name of the AI tool (e.g., ChatGPT). 
  • Version: Name the version of the AI tool as specifically as possible as listed on the tool, e.g. May 3 version.
  • Publisher: Name the company that made the tool, e,g., OpenAI.
  • Date: Give the date the content was generated.
  • Location: Give the general URL for the tool, or the unique public accessible URL for the conversation if available, e.g., via ShareGPT.


In-text Citation Examples

  • When asked “What is a proper noun?” ChatGPT by OpenAI (2023) replied “A proper noun is a type of noun that refers to a specific, unique person, place, thing, or idea” ("What is a").
  • When prompted with “What are the differences between UTF-8, ISO-8859-1, US-ASCII, and Windows-1251?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that “UTF-8 is a universal encoding that can represent any character, while ISO-8859-1, US-ASCII, and Windows-1251 are limited to certain character sets” ("What are the differences").


Works-Cited-List: Format and Example

"Title of source" prompt. Title of ContainerVersion, Publisher, Date, URL.

“What are the differences between UTF-8, ISO-8859-1, US-ASCII, and Windows-1251?” prompt. ChatGPT, May 3 version, OpenAI, 8 May. 2023,

“What is a proper noun?” prompt. ChatGPT, May 3 version, OpenAI, 8 May, 2023,


See also: