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University of Newcastle Library Guides

MLA Style:  Other sources

UON Library guide to MLA referencing style 8th edition for UON students

Citing other sources

Select a tab to view the general rules and examples for various other sources.

Book reviews


Book reviews can be published in a variety of sources such as newspapers or journals. When citing book reviews, the general formatting is reliant on the source material in which the book review is published, but the following information should always be added after the title of the review in the format of Review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last Name.


The general format for citing a book review:

Reviewer's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last NameTitle of Source WorkPublication Details, Page Range. DOI or URL.



Kakutani, Michiko. "Zadie Smith’s ‘Swing Time’ Explores Friends’ Diverging Paths." Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, 7 Nov. 2016.

Schatz, Bruce R. "Learning by Text or Context?" Review of The Social Life of Information, by John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid. Science, vol. 290, no. 5495, Nov. 2000, p. 1304. doi:10.1126/science.290.5495.1304.

Case studies


MLA does not have a specific format for how to reference case studies as an individual resource.

The formatting is reliant on the source material in which the case study is found, e.g. for a case study featured in a book, you would reference the book.

If required for your assignment, the case study can be specifically mentioned in your text, just add the standard citation for the source. As the case study is something specific within a larger resource, it is recommended that you add a page number to your in-text citation to help the reader locate it.



Cite the patents under the names of the creators, followed by the patent name, patent number, filing date and issuing date, and the source from which the patent information can be retrieved. 


In-text citation: format and example

... (Creator's Last Name parts cited if applicable) ...

... (Iizuka and Tanaka) ...


Works cited list entry: format and example

Creator's Last Name, First Name. Patent Name. Patent No, issuing Date. DatabaseDOI or URL.

Iizuka, Masanori, and Hideki Tanaka. Cement Admixture. US Patent 4,586,960, issued May 6, 1986,

Reference works


For information on how to reference entries or chapters from reference works such as:

  • Dictionaries
  • Encyclopaedias
  • Thesauri
  • Indexes, etc.

see Book chapters.

Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.



To cite a standard published by a specific industry group, or by a national or international standards organization, include the name of the organization, the title of the standard (in italics), an edition or other identifying number or label, and publication information.

Standards consulted online should include a URL. 

In the works-cited list, list the standard under the group or organization, even if that entity is also the publisher. 


In-text citation: format and example

... (Organisation Part cited) ...

... (Standards Australia) ...


Works cited list entry: format and example

Organisation. Title of Standard. Standard Number, Publisher, Year. DatabaseURL.

Standards Australia. The Storage and Handling of Corrosive Substances. AS 3780-2008, SAI Global, 2008. Australian Standards

National Information Standards Organization. Bibliographic References. ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005, NISO, approved June 9, 2005; reaffirmed May 13, 2010.

Statistics (ABS)


The following is the general format of a reference to an ABS document. Add the URL if the document is found online. 

  • If the Australian Bureau of Statistics is both the author and publisher, begin the entry with the title, skipping the author element, and list Australian Bureau of Statistics only as the publisher.
  • If there are personal authors, cite the item by the personal authors and use the full name of the publisher: Australian Bureau of Statistics. 


In-text citation: format and example

... (Short Title Part cited) ...

... (Regional Population) ...


Works cited list entry: format and example

Title: Subtitle. Catalog No, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Year, URL.

Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18. Cat. no. 3218.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019,


The general format (i.e. NOT MLA specific) for referencing ABS publications is available online from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.