Select a tab to view the general rules and examples for various other sources.
Book reviews can be published in a variety of sources such as newspapers or journals. When citing book reviews, the general formatting is reliant on the source material in which the book review is published, but the following information should always be added after the title of the review in the format of Review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last Name.
The general format for citing a book review:
Reviewer's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Review of Title of book, by Author's First and Last Name. Title of Source Work, Publication Details, Page Range. DOI or URL.
Kakutani, Michiko. "Zadie Smith’s ‘Swing Time’ Explores Friends’ Diverging Paths." Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, 7 Nov. 2016. www.nytimes.com/2016/11/08/books/zadie-smiths-swing-time-explores-friends-diverging-paths.html.
Schatz, Bruce R. "Learning by Text or Context?" Review of The Social Life of Information, by John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid. Science, vol. 290, no. 5495, Nov. 2000, p. 1304. doi:10.1126/science.290.5495.1304.
Cite the patents under the names of the creators, followed by the patent name, patent number, filing date and issuing date, and the source from which the patent information can be retrieved.
... (Creator's Last Name parts cited if applicable) ...
... (Iizuka and Tanaka) ...
Creator's Last Name, First Name. Patent Name. Patent No, issuing Date. Database, DOI or URL.
Iizuka, Masanori, and Hideki Tanaka. Cement Admixture. US Patent 4,586,960, issued May 6, 1986, patents.google.com/patent/US4586960.
Personal communications may cover the following examples:
Personal communications are usually run into the text or given in a parenthetical citation only.
Works-cited list entries are not needed. Most such information can be referred to simply as a conversation, message, unpublished data, or the like; the medium may be mentioned if relevant. Initials may be used for first names.
An email address or the like belonging to an individual should be omitted. Should it be needed in a specific context, it must be cited only with the permission of its owner.
In a conversation with the author on January 6, 2009, lobbyist Ann Adams admitted that . . .
Though inconclusive, a fifteen-second video shared with the author via Instagram by the subject’s family did suggest significant dementia.
... (Julie Cantor, pers. comm.) ...
... (Jonathan Lee, Facebook direct message to author, May 5, 2017) ...
... (Brenda Hasbrouck, text message to author, May 5, 2017) ...
... (C. R. Brown and M. B. Brown, unpublished data) ...
Works cited list entries are not needed.
Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.
To cite a standard published by a specific industry group, or by a national or international standards organization, include the name of the organization, the title of the standard (in italics), an edition or other identifying number or label, and publication information.
Standards consulted online should include a URL.
In the works-cited list, list the standard under the group or organization, even if that entity is also the publisher.
... (Organisation Part cited) ...
... (Standards Australia) ...
Organisation. Title of Standard. Standard Number, Publisher, Year. Database, URL.
Standards Australia. The Storage and Handling of Corrosive Substances. AS 3780-2008, SAI Global, 2008. Australian Standards online, www.saiglobal.com.
National Information Standards Organization. Bibliographic References. ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005, NISO, approved June 9, 2005; reaffirmed May 13, 2010.
The following is the general format of a reference to an ABS document. Add the URL if the document is found online.
... (Short Title Part cited) ...
... (Regional Population) ...
Title: Subtitle. Catalog No, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Year, URL.
Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18. Cat. no. 3218.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019, www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3218.0.
The general format (i.e. NOT MLA specific) for referencing ABS publications is available online from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
The University of Newcastle library requires that you reference the Generative AI tool whenever you paraphrase, summarise, or quote any of the AI-generated content (text, image, data, etc.) in your assignment.
The MLA Style Center recommends citing Generative AI using the MLA template.
In-text Citation Examples
"Title of source" prompt. Title of Container, Version, Publisher, Date, URL.
“What are the differences between UTF-8, ISO-8859-1, US-ASCII, and Windows-1251?” prompt. ChatGPT, May 3 version, OpenAI, 8 May. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.
“What is a proper noun?” prompt. ChatGPT, May 3 version, OpenAI, 8 May, 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.