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University of Newcastle Library guides

Chicago B: Author-Date Style:  Journal articles

UON Library guide to Chicago B: Author-Date Style 17th edition

Journal articles

 

General rules:

The following information is for reference list entries. See also:

Author Names

  • Appear first in the reference. Use the full names of authors and invert only the first author.
  • Include all author names in the bibliography when an article has up to 10 authors; list only the first 7 authors followed by et al. for more than 10 authors.
  • If the article does not have an author move the title to the author position.

Year of Publication

  • Appear second in the reference. 
  • If year of publication is unavailable, use n.d. (no date) in the place of the year.

Article Titles

  • Capitalise all words in the title and sub-title (except for common words - of, and, etc).
  • Article titles appear in double quotation marks.

Journal Title

  • Capitalise all words in the journal title (except for common words - of, and, etc).
  • Journal titles appear in full (not abbreviated), and in italics. e.g. Journal of Stuff.
  • An initial The in the journal title is usually dropped.

Volume Number

  • Volume numbers appear immediately following the journal title and followed by a comma.
  • When a journal uses issue numbers only, without volume numbers, a comma follows the journal title.
  • When a journal uses volume numbers only, without issue numbers or month or season, the volume number is immediately followed by a colon and the page range, with no intervening space, e.g. American Naturalist 185:653–64, but when month or season recorded, American Naturalist 185 (May): 653–64.

Issue Number

  • The issue number follows the volume number, separated by a comma and preceded by no. 
  • The issue number should be included even if pagination is continuous throughout a volume or when a month or season precedes the year.
  • Where more than one issue number is included, follow the usage in the journal itself, e.g. Renaissance Drama 41, no. 1/2 (Fall)
  • Months may be abbreviated or spelled in full; seasons are spelled out and capitalised.
  • A span of months or seasons may be cited, e.g. (May/June)
  • When month or season is unavailable, place the issue number in parentheses, e.g. 

    Lampel, Joseph, Theresa Lant, and Jamal Shamsie. 2000. “Balancing Act: Learning from Organizing Practices in Cultural Industries.” Organization Science 11 (3): 263–69.

  • When only an issue number is used, it is set off by commas and not enclosed in parentheses, e.g.
    Meyerovitch, Eva. 1959. “The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt.” Diogenes, no. 25, 84–117.

Page Numbers

  • Include the beginning and ending page numbers of the entire article, e.g. 45-67.
  • If your article has non-consecutive page numbers (e.g. due to the structure of the journal or advertising, etc.), use only the pages relating to your article and skip the others in between (e.g. Journal of Stuff 100, no.1 (May): 31-36, 38).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • Most individual articles are assigned an identifying "digital object identifier" or DOI. If a DOI is available, include it at the end of reference.

  • DOIs is cited in the format starting with https://doi.org/xxxxxxx, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1086/679716.

  • In the absence of a DOI, include the short form of URL or a permalink if available. If the source is located from a library database, cite by the database name instead. 

  • Check the What are DOIs? site for more information on DOIs.

Secondary Sources

For citations taken from secondary sources, see the Secondary Sources page

Journal articles with 1 author

 

The following is the general format with an example of a reference to an online journal article with one author and a DOI.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name Year of Publication) ...

... (Acciari 2014) ...

Add the page no to the in text citation when you including direct quotation, paraphrasing specific information or using secondary sources, e.g. (Baron 2013, 194).

 

Reference list entry: format and example

Author's Last Names, First Name. Year. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Month or Season of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Acciari, Monia. 2014. “The Italianization of Bollywood Cinema: Ad Hoc Films.” Studies in European Cinema 11, no. 1 (January): 14-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/17411548.2014.903099.

Baron, Naomi S. 2013. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media." PMLA 128, no. 1 (January): 193-200.

Journal articles with 2 authors

 

The following is the general format of a reference to an online journal article with two authors and a DOI

See the general rules for journal articles for more details.

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Last Name of Author One and Author Two Year of Publication) ...

... (Narr and Krist 2015) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

1st Author's Last Name, First Name, and 2nd Author's First name Last name. Year. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Month or Season of Publication): page range. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Narr, Charlotte F., and Amy C. Krist. 2015. “Host Diet Alters Trematode Replication and Elemental Composition.” Freshwater Science 34, no. 1 (March): 81–91. https://doi-org/10.1086/679411.

Journal articles with 3 authors

 

The following is the general format of a reference to an online journal article with three authors and a DOI

See the general rules for journal articles for more details.

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Last Name of Author One, Author Two, and Author Three Year of Publication) ...

... (Umbers, Symonds, and Kokko 2015) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

1st Author's Last Name, First Name, 2nd Author's First name Last name, and 3rd Author's First name Last name. Year. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Month or Season of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Umbers, Kate D. L., Matthew R. E. Symonds, and Hanna Kokko. 2015. “The Mothematics of Female Pheromone Signaling: Strategies for Aging Virgins.” American Naturalist 185, no. 3 (March): 417–32. https://doi.org/10.1086/679614.

Journal articles with 4+ authors

 

When a journal article has 4 or more authors, list only the first author followed by et al. in text citation. List all for up to 10 authors in reference list; if there are more than 10 authors, list the first 7 followed by et al. 

The following is the general format of a reference to an online journal article with four authors and a DOI.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details.

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Last Name of Author One et al. Year of Publication) ...

... (Gmuca et al. 2015) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

1st Author's Last Name, First Name, 2nd Author's First name Last name, 3rd Author's First name Last name,  and 4th Author's First name Last name. year. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Month or Season of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Gmuca, Natalia V., Linnea E. Pearson, Jennifer M. Burns, and Heather E. M. Liwanag. 2015. “The Fat and the Furriest: Morphological Changes in Harp Seal Fur with Ontogeny.” Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 88, no. 2 (March/April): 158–66. https://doi-org/10.1086/680080.

Journal articles with corporate authors

 

'Corporate authors' are organisations, associations, groups, or societies who have written publications. This includes universities, research groups, museums, government departments, professional associations, and so on.

To facilitate shorter parenthetical text citations, the organization may be listed under an abbreviation, e.g. (WTO 2019), in which case the entry must be alphabetized under that abbreviation (rather than the spelled-out name) in the reference list.

The following is the general format of a reference to a journal article by a corporate author with a DOI

See the general rules for journal articles for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Corporate Author Year of Publication) ...

... (SPRINT Research Group 2015) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

Corporate Author. Year. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Month or Season of Publication): page range.  https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

SPRINT Research Group. 2015. “A Randomized Trial of Intensive Versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control.” New England Journal of Medicine 33, no. 22 (November): 2103-16. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1602668.

Journal articles with no author listed

 

  • If the article does not have an author move the title to the author position. An initial article (A, An, or The) is ignored in alphabetizing.
  • Text citations may refer to a short form of the title (up to four words) but must include the first word (other than an initial article).
  • Works explicitly attributed to “Anonymous” (e.g., on the title page or at the head of the work) should be cited accordingly, e.g. 

...(Anonymous 2015)...

Anonymous. 2015. “Our Family Secrets.” Annals of Internal Medicine 163, no. 4 (August): 321. https://doi-org/10.7326/M14-2168.
 

The following is the general format of a reference to a journal article without an author.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... ("Shortened Article Title" Year of Publication) ...

... (“Pregnancy and Diabetes” 1910) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

"Article Title: Subtitle." Year. Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Month or Season of Publication): page range. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx.

Pregnancy and Diabetes.” 1910. Hospital 48, no.1260 (September): 736-37. 

Journal articles - 'In press', advance publication, online first

 

Many journal publishers provide access to articles before they have been assigned a volume, issue or page number, referring to them as "In Press", "Advance Publication", or "Online First" articles.

It is important to re-check references prior to submitting assessment tasks in case an 'in press' article has been assigned a volume, issue and page numbers. If this is the case, ensure you re-format the citation following the guidelines on the appropriate tab on this page for the number of authors the article has.

 

Referencing 'in press' articles:

 

If an article has been accepted for publication by a journal but has not yet appeared, forthcoming stands in place of the year and the page numbers. Any article not yet accepted should be treated as an unpublished manuscript. For example:

... (Adams, forthcoming) ...

Adams, Anna. Forthcoming. “Article Title.” Journal Title 98.

 

If an article is published by a journal electronically ahead of the official publication date, use the posted publication date. For example: 

... (Jubb 2015) ... 

Jubb, Robert. 2015. “The Real Value of Equality.” Journal of Politics 77, no. 3, published ahead of print, April 14, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1086/681262.

 

Where possible always refer to the final versions of your sources.

Online journal articles without a DOI

 

If an online journal article does not have a DOI assigned, add the URL at the end of the citation if the article is available freely on the web, or add the database name at the end of the citation if the article is located in a library database.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name Year of Publication) ...

... (Maddison 1999)...

... (Brody 2014)...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

Author's Last Names, First Name. Year. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Month or Season of Publication): page range.  Database or URL.

Brody, Jules. 2014. “Fate, Philology, Freud.” Philosophy and Literature 38, no. 1 (April): 1-29. Project MUSE.

Maddison, Sarah. 1999. "Private Men, Public Anger: The Men's Rights Movement in Australia." Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies 4, no 2 (December): 39-51. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1048435.

 

 

  • No retrieval date is needed for online articles.
  • Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break the URL before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
  • Include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.

 

Print journal articles

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a print journal article with one author which does not have a DOI.

See the general rules for journal articles for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last Name Year of Publication) ...

... (Cavell 1978) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

Author's Last Names, First Name. Year. "Article Title: Subtitle." Title of Journal Vol no, issue no (Month or Season of Publication): page range. 

Cavell, Stanley. 1978. "What Becomes of Things on Film?" Philosophy and Literature 2, no. 2 (Fall): 249-57.

 

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