Skip to main content
University of Newcastle Library guides

Chicago B: Author-Date Style:  Film, TV, video & music

UON Library guide to Chicago B: Author-Date Style 17th edition

Citing film, TV, music and other AV sources

 

  • Select a tab to view the general rules and examples for various Audio Visual sources
  • For YouTube videos and podcasts see the Web Resources page

 

The following information is for reference list entries. See also:

 

General rules:

The citation for recordings and other multimedia content usually includes some or all of the following elements:

  • The name of the composer, writer, performer, or other person primarily responsible for the content. Include designations such as vocalist, conductor, or director as appropriate.
  • The title of the work, in italics or quotation marks, as applicable.
  • Information about the work, including the names of additional contributors and the date and location of the recording, production, or performance.
  • Information about the publisher, and date of publication.
  • Information about the medium or format (e.g., LP, DVD, MP3, AVI) and supplementary information, such as the number of discs in an album and the duration of the recording, as applicable.
  • Any additional information that might be relevant to the citation.
  • For sources consulted online, a DOI or URL.

The order of these elements—and which ones are included—will depend not only on the nature of the source but also on whether a part or the whole is cited and whether a particular contributor is the focus of the citation.

Film and video 

 

General Notes:

  • Citations of video and film recordings vary according to the nature of the material (television show, movie, etc.).
  • Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included.
  • Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number.
  • Ancillary material, such as critical commentary, is cited by author and title.
  • If the major contributors of the work are unknown, move the title to the author position.
  • Cite the format consulted but list the date of the original recording privileged in the citation
  • Medium types include DVD, Blu-ray, CD-ROM, VHS, and streaming video (from Kanopy, ClickView, Netflix etc.).
  • If the item is consulted online, include the DOI, URL or database name.

 

The following is the general format and examples of a reference to a video in Blu-ray, DVD and a streaming video. See the general rules for Film, TV, video & music for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Contributor's Last Name Year of Publication) ...

... (Cuarón [2013] 2014) ...

... (Leunig 2011) ...

... (Lee [2005] 2014) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

Contributor's First and Last Names, type of contribution. Year. Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher. Medium, duration. DOI or Database name or URL if applicable. 

Cuarón, Alfonso, dir. (2013) 2014. Gravity. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures. Blu-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

Lee, Ang, dir. (2005) 2014. Brokeback Mountain. San Francisco: Kanopy Streaming. Streaming video, 134 min. Kanopy.

Leunig, Sunny, dir. 2011. Integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Perspectives in Schools. Written by Simon Garner. Produced by Katrina Stavridis. Bendigo: VEA. DVD.

 

TV shows

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a TV show or content taken from one. The order of the elements will depend not only on the nature of the source but also on whether a part or the whole is cited and whether a particular contributor is the focus of the citation. 

See the general rules for Film, TV, video & music for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Contributor's Last Name Year of Publication) ...

... (Mayberry 1971) ...

... (Phillips 2018) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

Contributor's Last Names, First Name. Year. Title: Subtitle. Season/episode no, "Episode Title." Publication details. URL. 

Mayberry, Russ, dir. 1971. The Brady Bunch. Season 3, episode 10, “Her Sister’s Shadow.” Aired November 19, 1971, on ABC. https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

Phillips, Graham, reporter. 2018. "The Private Space Race Heats Up." 7:30 Report. Posted July 25, 2018, on ABC, expires January 25, 2020. http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/the-private-space-race-heats-up/10036086.

Recorded music

 

General Notes:

  • Reference can be listed by author (writer or composer), performer, or other primary contributors. If the conductor or performer is the focus of the recording or is more relevant to the discussion than the composer, either one may be listed first. 
  • Include publication date and/or the date of the recording or the copyright date. If no date can be found, use “n.d.” (for no date).
  • Recordings on LP or disc typically include acquisition numbers, which follow the name of the publisher with no intervening comma.
  • For streaming audio formats and downloads, list the service or the file format, as applicable.

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a music recording. See the general rules for Film, TV, video & music for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Contributor's Last Name Year of Publication) ...

... (Holiday 1958) ...

... (Simon 2010) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

Contributor's First and Last Names, type of contribution. Year. "Title of Music." Other Contributors and Role. On Title of Album.  Place of Publication: Publisher. Medium. 

Holiday, Billie, vocalist. 1958. “I’m a Fool to Want You.” By Joel Herron, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Wolf. Recorded February 20, 1958, with Ray Ellis. Track 1 on Lady in Satin. Columbia CL 1157, 33⅓ rpm.

Simon, Paul. 2010. "50 Ways to Leave Your Lover." On Still Crazy After All These Years: The Greatest Hits of Paul Simon. New York: CBS Digital. CD.

Radio Interviews

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a radio interview.

See the general rules for Film, TV, and other AV materials for more details. 

 

In-text citation: format and example

... (Interviewee's Last Name Year of Publication) ...

... (Stamper 2017) ...

 

Reference list entry: format and example

Interviewee's Last Names, First Name. Year. "Interview Title: Subtitle." Interview by Interviewer. Title of Program, Radio Company, Date of Publication. Medium, Duration. DOI or URL if available.

Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb’: How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.

 

Quoting from film, TV and AV media

 

To cite a specific part or direct quote from an audio or video content, you need to use the time stamp in the format of Hours:Minutes:Seconds.  

Check the time that the quote starts on the audio or video, and cite that in the in-text citation, e.g.1:13:20.  Here the 1:13:20 refers to 1 hour 13 minutes 20 seconds into the film, where the quote we want starts.

  • Hours/minutes/seconds follows the pattern H:MM:SS
  • Minutes/seconds follows the pattern MM:SS
  • Where you are only using seconds (e.g. for a short clip), use a zero at the front, e.g. 0:39 for 39 seconds.

For example, ... (Lee 2005, 54:22) ...

Ask The Library

Ask The Library