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University of Newcastle Library guides

Vancouver Referencing Style:  Web resources

UON Library guide to Vancouver Style for UON students

General Rules and Examples

Web resources

 

General rules:

  • For specific type of web resources see the tabs above. 

Author Names

  • List up to 6 author names in the reference. Add et al. after the 6th author for more than 6 authors.
  • Web sites with an organization as both author and publisher, place the organization in the publisher position.
  • If the web content does not have an author, move the title to the author position.

Title

  • Reproduce the title of a homepage as closely as possible to the wording on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, punctuation, and special characters when possible
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, etc.) is already present.
  • Add ‘Internet’ in square brackets directly after the web page title. Follow with a full-stop.
  • Do not italicize, underline or use quotation marks for web page titles.

Place of Publication

  • Use the city where the headquarter of the publisher is located.  
  • If no place of publication can be found or inferred, use [place unknown].

Publisher

  • Omit an initial "The" from a publisher’s name
  • The publisher name can be abbreviated when the title is the same as the publisher. 
  • If no publisher can be found, use [publisher unknown].

Date of Publication

  • Add date/range of publication in year month day format
  • Add the copyright date for the web site when the date of publication is not available.
  • Include the date the web page was updated, and the date the page was cited in square brackets, eg. [updated 2018 Jun 24; cited 2019 May 19]. 
  • When the publication date is unknown, use [date unknown].

URL

  • At the end of the reference, add the phrase ‘Available from:’ followed by the URL. Do not include a full-stop at the end.
  • Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break the URL before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
  • Remove the University proxy (ezproxy.newcastle.edu.au) from any link used.

Secondary Sources

For citations taken from secondary sources, see the Secondary Sources page.

Citing websites and webpages 

 

For web resources other than websites and webpages, see the tabs above. 

 

An entire website can be cited by the homepage of the site (see example 1 below). For websites within other websites, cite the most specific identifiable site used. 

For webpages, first determine whether or not the webpage/s can stand alone and be cited separately (see example 2 below). For webpages that cannot stand alone (part/s of a website), begin the reference with information about the entire site, and follow it with the information about the webpage (see example 3 below). If in doubt about the status of a wbpage, cite it separately.

 

See the general rules for web resources for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: websites

 

Citation No.  Author/s of website. Title of website: subtitle [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [updated date; cited date]. Available from: URL

 

1.           University of Newcastle, Australia [Internet]. Callaghan (NSW): The University; 2020 [cited 2020 Mar 24]. Available from: https://www.newcastle.edu.au

 

 

Reference list entry: stand alone webpages

 

Citation No.  Author/s of webpage. Title of webpage: subtitle [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [updated date; cited date]; pagination/length of webpage. Available from: URL

 

2.           Smith TM. Where to find ethical guidance in a pandemic [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; 2020 Mar 27 [cited 2020 Mar 28];[about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/public-health/where-find-ethical-guidance-pandemic

 

 

Reference list entry: webpages that cannot stand alone (parts of websites)

 

Citation No.  Author/s of website. Title of website: subtitle [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [updated date]. Title of webpage [updated date; cited date]; pagination/length of webpage. Available from: URL

 

3.           NCCIH: National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Center; [modified 2019 Apr 02]. Complementary, alternative, or integrative health: what’s in a name? [updated 2018 Jul 12; cited 2020 Mar 29]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health

Note:

1.  For a website with an organization as both author and publisher as above, place the organization in the publisher position.

2. The publisher name can be abbreviated when the title is the same as the publisher.

Citing online documents

 

This information is for general documents found online, that are not covered elsewhere in this guide.

N.B. For the following document types, refer to their specialist pages:

Citing online documents is similar to citing websites and webpages. 

The following is the general format of a reference to an online document.  See the general rules for web resources for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No.  Author/s of document. Document title: subtitle [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [updated date; cited date]. Pagination of document. Available from: URL

 

1.           Moore B. The vocabulary of Australian English [Internet]. Canberra: Australian National University, Australian National Dictionary Centre; [cited 2019 Jul 23]. Available from: http://www.slll.cass.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/andc/vocab_aussie_eng.pdf

2.           Influenza vaccine: who should get it, and who should not [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2018 Oct 16 [cited 2019 Jul 23]. 2p. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/freeresources/updated/who-should-vaccinate-update.pdf

 

Press releases

 

A press release, also called news release, or media release, is an official statement on a particular matter by a news agent or organisation. 

A press release published on an organisation's web site may be cited as part of their web site with Press release preceding the title. 

The following is the general format of a reference to a press release. 

See also the general rules for web resources for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No.  Author/s of website. Title of website: subtitle [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [updated date]. Press release, Title of press release [updated date; cited date]; pagination/length of press release. Available from: URL

 

1.           Australian Bureau of Statistics [Internet]. Canberra: ABS; 2018 Aug 9 [updated 2019 Jul 5]. Press release cat. no. 6226.0, More than one million Australians change jobs [cited 2020 Mar 29]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/lookup/6226.0Media%20Release5February%202018

2.           AAMC: Association of American Medical Colleges [Internet]. Washington: The Association; 2019. Press release, the majority of U.S. medical students are women, new data show; 2019 Dec 10 [cited 2020 Jan 8]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.aamc.org/news-insights/press-releases/majority-us-medical-students-are-women-new-data-show

Note:

1.  For a website with an organization as both author and publisher as above, place the organization in the publisher position.

2. The publisher name can be abbreviated when the title is the same as the publisher.

Citing blogs, blog posts, and comments

 

A blog is a web-based forum that consists of posted entries organized by date or topic, and usually accompanied by readers’ comments. 

Note that the distinction between a blog and a website is often unclear; when in doubt, treat the title like that of a website. 

‚ÄčIt is often sufficient to cite blogs/posts/comments entirely within the running text unless a reference list entry is needed.

The following is the general format of a reference to a blog and a reference to a blog post. Comments on a blog/post can usually be cited in the text, in reference to the related blog/post, unless a formal reference list is needed, see example 3 below. Use [blog on the Internet] if the word 'blog' is not part of the blog title.

See also the general rules for web resources for more details. 

 

Reference list entry for a blog: format and example

 

Citation No.  Blog Author. Blog title [Internet]Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication [cited date].  Available from: URL

 

1.           Bernstein M. Bioethics Discussion Blog [Internet]. Los Angeles: Maurice Bernstein. 2004 Jul - [cited 2020 Jan 6]. Available from: https://bioethicsdiscussion.blogspot.com       

 

Reference list entry for a blog post: format and example

 

Citation No.  Blog Author. Blog title [Internet]Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication. Post title; Date of post [cited date]; [screen no]. Available from: URL

 

2.           Doctor CBB. CodeBlueBlog [Internet]. [Florida]: [Thomas Boyle]. [2004 May] -   . i-Mammo part II: breasts, lies and videotapes; 2005 Apr 15 [cited 2007 May 23]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://codeblueblog.blogs.com/codeblueblog/2005/04/part_ii_and_the.html

 

Reference list entry for a comment on a blog: format and example

 

Citation No.  Comment Author. Comment title. Date of comment [date cited]. In: Blog Author. Blog Title [Internet]Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication. page/screen noAvailable from: URL

 

3.           Campbell A. Diabetes and alcohol: do the two mix? (Part 2). 2008 Jan 28 [cited 2020 Feb 14]. In: Diabetes Self-Management Blog [Internet]. New York: Diabetes Self-Management. [2006 Aug 14] -   . 2 p. Available from: http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/Amy_Campbell/Diabetes_and_Alcohol_Do_the_Two_Mix_Part_2

Twitter, Facebook and other social media contents

 

  • Unless a more formal citation is needed, citations of social media content can often be limited to the text, e.g. The UON Student Central Facebook page (www.facebook.com/UONStudentCentral) lists a number of options for students ...
  • Private content via social media, such as personal and friends-only contents, is considered a form of personal communication and should be cited as such. 
  • Comments can usually be cited in the text, in reference to the related post. 

To cite publicly available content shared via social media in reference list, include the following elements:

  • Author of the post. Real name and/or screen name if available.
  • Title or text of the post. 
  • Type of post. List the name of the social media service and include a description if relevant (photo, video, etc.).
  • Date (Year Month Day) of the post. Time stamps as needed to differentiate a post or comment from others on the same day.
  • A URL. A URL for a specific item can often be found via the date stamp, click the date/time underneath the post to be taken to an individual update page with its own URL.

 Also note:

  • Because social media content is subject to editing and deletion, authors are advised to retain a copy of anything they cite.

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No.  Author. Title [Internet]Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication. Post title; Date of post [cited date]; [screen no]. Available from: URL

1.           JAMA. JAMA Oncology Twitter page [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; 2014 Sep. Patient information: jaundice in cancer; 2016 Jul 17 [cited 2016 Jul 20]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: https://twitter.com/JAMAOnc/status/754752541582356480

YouTube and other free online videos

 

Streaming or other online video is digital video content made available through online/networked means. The information here is for the various free video hosting platforms such as YouTube, TED talks,  VEVO, Vimeo, Dailymotion, etc. For video content made available through subscription services such as Netflix, Kanopy, or ClickView, see the information under the source type of Films, TV, video & music on the left. 

 

Notes to cite free online videos:

  • If the author's real name is not available use the screen name.
  • Include the full URL as the final element of the citation. The 'Share' feature on YouTube can provide a shortened, usable link.
  • If the material is a recording of a speech or performance, or if it is a digital version of a published source, include information about the original performance or source if needed.
  • Copies of sources that are under copyright and which have been posted without ties to any publisher or sponsor should be cited with caution. 
  • Comments on the videos can usually be cited in the text, in reference to the related video. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No.  Author. Video title [Internet]Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [cited date]. Video: time length. Available from: URL

 

1.           James and the peanut allergy [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah, Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library; 2011 Mar 31 [cited 2020 Jan 7]. Video: 52 sec. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VoCAizDEKlM

2.           Vsauce. Is your red the same as my red? [Internet]. [place unknown]:Vsauce; 17 Feb. 2013 [cited 2020 Jan 7]. Video: 9:34. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evQsOFQju08

 

Podcasts and streaming audio

 

Citations of online audio content follow the same rules for citing online videos. See more details under the YouTube and online videos tab. 

The following is the general format of a reference to a podcast. See the general rules for web resources for more details.

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No.  Author.  Title [Internet]Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [cited date]. Podcast: time length. Available from: URL

 

1.           Van Nuys D. Growing your resilience with Rick Hanson PhD [Internet]. [place unknown]: Shrink Rap Radio; 2018 Apr 5 [cited 2020 Jan 7]. Podcast: 1:10:51. Available from: https://shrinkrapradio.com/592-growing-your-resilience-with-rick-hanson-phd

 

Images taken from the web

 

For images from web pages, refer to the Images, art works, maps, tables, etc page.

'Research Starters' from the Library Catalogue

 

For Research Starters accessed from the Library catalogue, refer to the Book Chapters page.

Statistics (ABS)

 

For referencing statistical information from the ABS, refer to the Other: Statistics, standards, etc. page.

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