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Vancouver Referencing Style:  Reference list

UON Library guide to Vancouver Style for UON students

General rules for the reference list


  • The reference list appears at the end of the document and includes only the sources cited in-text.
  • Reference list entries appear in the same order as cited in-text, arranged numerically by citation number.
  • All lines of reference list entries should be indented. 
  • List the author names in the order they appear on the publication.
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first, followed by initials for each author.
  • Where there are 6 or fewer authors, list all author names. 
  • Where there are 7 or more authors, list the first six authors followed by “et al."
  • Initials follow the surname of authors, no spaces or full-stops appear between initials, eg. Smith CK
  • Capitalise surnames and enter spaces as they appear on the publication. For example, Van Den Hoffer or van der Hoffer
  • Place a comma and space between each name.
  • Do not use “and” or “&” to separate the last two authors.
  • Do not include The before the name of any corporate author in the reference list.
  • Capitalise titles sentence case, ie. only the first word of titles (and words that normally begin with a capital letter) are capitalized.
  • Do not italicize or underline titles
  • ​If a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available for your source, cite the DOI instead of URL
  • For secondary sources, name the original source, as well as provide a citation to the secondary source in the text, and cite only the secondary sources in the reference list

For more details and examples follow the links to the type of sources at the left of this page or use the index under How to cite.

Example reference list


  • Reference list appears at the end of the document and includes only the sources cited in-text.
  • Reference list entries appear in the same order as cited in-text, arranged numerically by citation number.
  • All lines of reference list entries are indented.


1.  Vitharana VH, Chinda T. Structural equation modelling of lower back pain due to whole-body vibration exposure in the construction industry. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2019;25(2):257-67. doi:10.1080/10803548.2017.1366119.

2.  Stevens ML, Boyle E, Hartvigsen J, Mansell G, Sogaard K, Jorgensen MB, et al. Mechanisms for reducing low back pain: a mediation analysis of a multifaceted intervention in workers in elderly care. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2019;92(1):49-58. doi:10.1007/s00420-018-1350-3.

3.  Schreijenberg M, Koes BW, Lin CC. Guideline recommendations on the pharmacological management of non-specific low back pain in primary care - is there a need to change? Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019;12(2):145-57. doi:10.1080/17512433.2019.1565992. 

4.  Bennett DS. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane and umbilical cord particulate for managing pain caused by facet joint syndrome: a case series. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(10):e14745. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000014745.

5.  Akahane M, Maeyashiki A, Tanaka Y, Imamura T. The impact of musculoskeletal diseases on the presence of locomotive syndrome. Mod Rheumatol. 2019;29(1):151-6. doi:10.1080/14397595.2018.1452173.

6.  Zoia C, Bongetta D, Alicino C, Chimenti M, Pugliese R, Gaetani P. Usefulness of corset adoption after single-level lumbar discectomy: a randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg Spine. 2018;28(5):481-5. doi:10.3171/2017.8.SPINE17370.

7.  Zadro JR, Shirley D, Ferreira M, Carvalho Silva AP, Lamb SE, Cooper C, et al. Is vitamin D supplementation effective for low back pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain Physician. 2018;21(2):121-45.

8.  Zack O, Levin R, Krakov A, Finestone AS, Moshe S. The relationship between low back pain and professional driving in young military recruits. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018;19(1):110.

9.  Yazdani S, Dizji E, Alizadeh F, Hassanlouei H. Effect of chronic idiopathic low back pain on the kinetic gait characteristics in different foot masks. J Biomech. 2018;79:243-7.

10. Australian Bureau of Statistics. National Health Survey: first results, 2017-18 [Internet]. Canberra: ABS; 2018 Dec 12 [cited 2020 Feb 4]. ABS cat no 364.0.55.001. Available from:

11. Germov J. Get great marks for your essays, reports, and presentations. 3rd ed. Crows Nest (NSW): Allen & Unwin; 2011.

12. McLeod GA, Columb MO. Moles, weights and potencies: freedom of expression! [letter]. Br J Anaesth. 2005 Jul;95(1):110-1.

13. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Arthritis snapshot [Internet]. Canberra: AIHW; 2018 Jul 14 [cited 2019 Jun 4]. AIHW cat no: PHE 234. Available from:

Abbreviations used in Vancouver style


The following abbreviations are used in the Vancouver style.

Please note: where confusion may result, spell out the word instead.​

  • Title of journals may be abbreviated. For accepted abbreviations see
    • [search by title, abbreviation, or ISSN].
    • Please note: 
      • never abbreviate journal titles consisting of a single word;
      • do not abbreviate journal titles in character-based languages.
  • The names of months may be abbreviated using the first three letters:

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov and Dec


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