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Vancouver Referencing Style:  Images, maps, tables, etc.

UON Library guide to Vancouver Style for UON students

Images, maps, tables, etc.

Figures, tables, maps, and other images

 

Vancouver style uses the terminology 'figures' when discussing images presented separately from the run of text in sources. 'Figures' includes the following image types:

  • Charts or graphs
  • Drawings or paintings
  • Maps (included in sources)
  • Photographs, or other images (included in sources)

For information on citing tables or standalone maps See the Tables tab or Maps tab.

 

General rules: citing vs using images

 

Citing figures

  • When citing (not reprinting) an image from a book or other sources, cite the source first, then follow it with the information of the image.
  • Do not use abbreviations, e.g., use 'Figure 1' instead of 'Fig. 1' in your reference list. 

Using (reprinting or adapting) figures

  • Figures and tables taken from other sources require credit lines. A credit line should include the source information and page or figure number. A credit line usually appears at the end of a caption of a figure, or in a source note of a table. 
  • Figures and tables must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc)  in the order in which they appear within the text, i.e. the first figure is labeled "Fig. 1", the second "Fig. 2", and so on. 
  • Refer to each figure or table in text by their number, e.g. Figue 1, Table 4, etc.
  • If you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc) you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner to include the figure or table in your work, and state the permission in the source citation as 'Reprinted with permission from ...'
  • Copyright holder may be the publisher, author/s or artists.
  • While students don't usually require publisher permission to include figures or tables in assignments, you should still include the credit line in your assignments.

Figures - citing and reprinting

 

Note: Figures taken from other sources require source citations and credit lines. See Using Figures taken from other sources below for more details.

When citing (not reprinting) a figure from a book or other sources, cite the source first, then follow it with the information of the figure.

The following is the general format of a reference to a figure in a book and a figure in an eBook.

See the general rules for images for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citing figures appearing in print books 

Citation No.  Author. Title: subtitle. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication. Figure no, Figure title; page no.

1.           Haveles EB. Applied pharmacology for the dental hygienist. 6th ed. Maryland Heights (MO): Mosby; 2011. Figure 17.1, Classification of common mental illnesses; p. 224.

 

Citing figures appearing in eBooks 

Citation No.  Author. Title: subtitle [Internet]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication. Figure no, Figure title; Date of update [cited date];  page no. Available from: DOI or URL

2.           Freeman C. Egypt, Greece, and Rome: civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean [Internet]. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2014.  Figure 2, The Doric and Ionic orders; [cited 2020 Jan 15]; p. 187. Available from: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

 

Using figures taken from other sources

 

If you are including a figure from another source in your assignment, you need provide the source citation and credit lines with the figure. 

  • Copy the figure exactly as found in the original source, unless you need to adapt it.
  • Number figures consecutively in Arabic numerals (Figure. 1, Figure. 2, etc) as they appear in your assignment
  • Acknowledge the original source following the caption directly underneath the figure.
  • Captions should be capitalized in sentence style
  • In addition to author, title, publication details, and copyright statement, the credit line should include figure number and page cited.
  • Students don't usually require publisher permission to include figures in assignments unless your assignment will be published. 

The following is an example of reprinting a figure from a book. For reusing figures from other sources, follow the citation pattern for that source

 

Figure. 1. Surgical mask (left) and N95 mask (right). Reprinted from Doyle GR, McCutcheon JA. Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care. BCcampus; 2015; chapter 1.4. https://opentextbc.ca/clinicalskills. Copyright 2015 by British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) (Creative Commons).

[This eBook does not use page numbers so the chapter information has been included instead. This will assist with locating the original figure]

 


Adapting or changing the figure?

 In the caption under the figure change the word 'Reprinted from' to 'Adapted from' to show that you have changed the original (even in a small way). 


 

Reproduction note: 

The figure above, reprinted from Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Carehas been reproduced under the Creative Commons License. This notice is separate from the figure so as not to confuse the referencing in the figure caption.

Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care by Glynda Rees Doyle and Jodie Anita McCutcheon: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Citing Maps

 

  • The information here is about citing maps. For information on reprinting maps to be used in your paper, see the tab 'Figures - citing or reprinting' above.
  • In general, citing a freestanding map is similar to citing a book, but add [map] after the title, see example 1 below; for online maps, add [map on the internet] after map title, and add the cited date and the DOI if available or URL to the citation, see example 2.  
  • Citing a map as a part of other sources such as books or atlases, cite the source first, and follow it with the information about the map, see examples 3-4. 

The following is the general format and example of citing a standalone map in printa Google map, and a map from a book and an eBook. 

See the general rules for images for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citing freestanding maps in print

Citation No.  Cartographer. Title: subtitle [map]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

1.           Buchholz D, cartographer. Street map, San Diego, southern area [map]. Oceanside (CA): Global Graphics; 2000.

 

Citing freestanding online maps 

Citation No.  Cartographer. Title: subtitle [map on the Internet]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication [cited date]. Page. URL

2.           Satellite view of Newcastle NSW Australia [Map on the Internet]. Mountain View (CA): Google Earth; c2020 [cited 2020 Jan 8]. Available from: https://www.google.com/maps/@-32.9546526,151.6396797,48499m/data=!3m1!1e3

 

Citing maps appearing in print books 

Citation No.  Author. Title: subtitle. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication. Map no, Map title; page no.

3.           Kelly M. Anchored in a small cove: a history and archaeology of The Rocks, Sydney. Sydney: Sydney Cove Authority; 1997. Map of The Rocks area; p. 8-9.

 

Citing maps appearing in eBooks 

Citation No.  Author. Title: subtitle [Internet]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication. Map no, Map title; Date of update [cited date];  page no. Available from: DOI or URL

4.           Freeman C. Egypt, Greece, and Rome: civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean [Internet]. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2014.  Map 2, Ancient Egypt; [cited 2020 Jan 15]; p. 39. Available from: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Tables - citing or reprinting

 

When citing (not reprinting) a table from a book or other sources, cite the source first, and follow it with the information about the table.

The following is the general format of a reference to a table in a print book. and one from an eBook. 

See the general rules for images for more information. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citing a table from print books 

Citation No.  Author. Title: subtitle. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication. Table no, Table title; page no.

1.           Kelly M. Anchored in a small cove: a history and archaeology of The Rocks, Sydney. Sydney: Sydney Cove Authority; 1997. Map of The Rocks area; p. 8-9.

 

Citing a table from eBooks 

Citation No.  Author. Title: subtitle [Internet]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication. Table no, Table title; Date of update [cited date];  page no. Available from: DOI or URL

2.           Brehm-Curtis B. Nutrition: science, issues, and applications [Internet]. Santa Barbara (CA): ABC-CLIO; 2015. Table 1, Alternative Sweeteners; [cited 2020 Jan 15]; p. 27. Available from: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

3.           Zubrick SR, Lawrence D, de Maio J, Biddle N. Testing the reliability of a measure of Aboriginal children's mental health: an analysis based on the Western Australian Aboriginal child health survey [Internet]. Belconnen ACT: Australian Bureau of Statistics; c2006. Table 3.5, SDQ items and variable names used in later modelling; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. 17. Available from: http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/B9B45094C93CD3ACCA25712400156C7C/$File/1351055011_mar%202006.pdf

 

 

Tables taken from other sources

 

If you are including a table from another source within an assignment, you need provide the source notes with the table. 

  • Copy the table exactly as found in the original source, unless you need to adapt it (see info below).
  • The table number and title go above the table, see the example below.
  • Acknowledge the original source within a source note included directly underneath the table.
  • Begin with the word 'Source: ' then followed by the reference of the sources, see the example below.
  • If you have adapted or borrowed the data from the table, you may add the following after the 'Source: '
    • 'Adapted from' if you have adapted or changed the table; or
    • 'Data from' if you have used the data from another source in your own table.
  • In addition to author, title, publication details and copyright statement, the source note should include any page and/or table number.
  • Students don't usually require publisher permission to include tables in assignments unless your assignment will be published. 
  • If you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc) you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner to reuse the table in your work. See details via the tab for Writing for publication above.

 

The following is an example of reprinting a table from a book. For reusing tables from other sources, follow the citation pattern for that source

 

Table 1

Nursing Interventions for the Stages of Dying

Sources: Lowey SE. Nursing care at the end of life [Internet]. Open SUNY Textbooks; 2015. Table 3.1. Available from: https://milnepublishing.geneseo.edu/nursingcare. Copyright 2015 by Susan E. Lowey (Creative Commons).

 

Reproduction note: 

The table above, reprinted from Nursing Care at the End of Life has been reproduced under the Creative Commons License. This notice is separate from the table so as not to confuse the referencing in the table notes.

Nursing Care at the End of Life by Susan. E. Lowey: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Using figures and tables from other sources when writing for publication

 

If you are including a figure or table you found in another source, and you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc) you must:

  • Obtain written permission from the copyright owner to include the figure or table in your work
  • Copy the figure or table exactly as found in the original source, unless you need to adapt it
  • Acknowledge the original source within the figure caption or table note as 'Reprinted with permission from...'
  • This is the case even if you change or adapt something in the figure or table, use 'Adapted with permission from' if applicable. 

 

Figure example taken from a journal article:

An example is shown below using the template for a figure from a journal article. The pattern follows the style of caption for your image source, plus a notice of permission, the source citation, and the copyright statement. 

For figures from other sources, follow the pattern for the source and add the required notice of permission and copyright statement.


Image

Figure 1. The clinical reasoning process with descriptors.  Reprinted with permission from Tracy Levett-Jones, et al. The five rights of clinical reasoning: an educational model to enhance nursing students' ability to identify and manage clinically 'at risk' patients. Nurse Educ Today. 2010 Aug; 30(6):515-520; p. 517. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier. 

 

Table example taken from a journal article:

An example is shown below using the template for a table from a journal article. The pattern follows the style of note for your image source, plus a notice of permission after the copyright statement: "Copyright 2010 by Elsevier. Reprinted with permission.".

For tables from other sources, follow the pattern for that source and add the required notice of permission and copyright statement.

 

Table 1. 

The Difference Between Cue Collection in Experienced and Novice Nurses

Table
Source: Tracy Levett-Jones, et al. The five rights of clinical reasoning: an educational model to enhance nursing students' ability to identify and manage clinically 'at risk' patients. Nurse Educ Today. 2010 Aug. 30(6):515-520; p. 518. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier. 

 


 

Adapting or changing the figure or table?

 In the caption under the figure (or source note under the table) change the wording 'Reprinted with permission from' to 'Adapted with permission from' to show that you have changed the original (even in a small way).

 

 


Reproduction note: 

The figure and table above, reprinted from Nurse Education Today, have been reproduced with permission. This notice is separate from the figure and table so as not to confuse the referencing in the figure caption and table note.

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