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University of Newcastle Library guides

Vancouver Referencing Style:  Film, TV, video & music

UON Library guide to Vancouver Style for UON students

Film, TV & AV media

Citing film, TV, music and other AV sources

 

  • Select a tab to view the general rules and examples for various Audio Visual sources
  • For YouTube videos and podcasts see the Web Resources page

 

General rules:

The citation for recordings and other multimedia content usually includes some or all of the following elements:

  • The name of the composer, writer, performer, or other person primarily responsible for the content. Include designations such as vocalist, conductor, or director as appropriate.
  • The title of the work
  • If desired, the names of secondary authors
  • Information about the publisher, and date of publication.
  • Information about the medium or format (e.g., LP, DVD, MP3, AVI),
  • If desired, the physical descriptions such as the number of discs in an album and the duration of the recording, as applicable.
  • For sources consulted online, a DOI or URL and the cited date.

The order of these elements—and which ones are included—will depend not only on the nature of the source but also on whether a part or the whole is cited and whether a particular contributor is the focus of the citation.

Film and video 

General Notes:

  • Citations of video and film recordings will have the medium type after the title.
  •  Medium types include DVDBlu-rayCD-ROMVHSstreaming video (such as ClickView, Kanopy or Netflix videos) etc.
  • Optional elements such as Secondary Authors (e.g. director, producer, etc) and Physical Description (e.g. 1 DVD: 25 min., sound, color, 4 3/4 in) may be included if desired. See examples 3-5 below.
  • If the authors of the work are unknown, move the title to the author position, see example 1, 3, 4 and 6.
  • If the item is consulted online, include the DOI if available or URL, and the cited date, see example 4.

 

The following is the general format and examples of a reference to a video in Blu-ray, DVD and a streaming video. See the general rules for Film, TV, video & music for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No. Author/s. Title: subtitle [type of medium]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

 

1.           Mentoring: the experience of a lifetime [DVD]. Brooklyn (NY): National Student Nurses' Association (US); c2005. 1 DVD: 25 min., sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

2.           Kacmarek RM. Advanced respiratory care [CD-ROM]. Version 3.0. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2000. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

3.           ER: the complete first season [DVD]. Constant C Productions; Amblin Entertainment, producers. Burbank (CA): Warner Home Video; 2003. 4 DVDs: 1179 min., sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

4.           Brokeback Mountain [streaming video]Lee A, director. San Francisco: Kanopy; 2014 [cited 2020 Feb 2]. Kanopy streaming video: 124 min. Available from: https://www.kanopy.com/product/brokeback-mountain

5.           Garner S. Integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Perspectives in Schools [DVD]Leunig S, director. Stavridis K, producer. Bendigo, Vic; 2011.

6.           Gravity [Blu-ray Disc]Cuarón A, director. Burbank (CA): Warner Bros; 2014.

 

 

TV shows

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a TV show or content taken from one. The order of the elements will depend not only on the nature of the source but also on whether a part or the whole is cited and whether a particular contributor is the focus of the citation. 

See the general rules for Film, TV, video & music for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No. Author/s. Title: subtitle [television broadcast]. Title of TV program. Location: Broadcaster; Date of broadcast.

 

1.           Phillips G, reporter. The private space race heats up [television broadcast]. 7:30 Report, Sydney: ABC;  2018 Jul 25.

2.           Willis O, reporter. Caesarean twin deliveries increase three-fold in Victoria, despite no evidence of benefit [television broadcast]. News. Sydney: ABC; 2019 Dec 2.

3.          Mayberry R, director. Her sister’s shadow [television broadcast on the Internet]. The Brady Bunch, season 3, episode 10, ABC(US), 19 Nov. 1971 [cited 2020 Feb 2]. Available from: https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

Recorded music

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a music recording. 

See the general rules for Film, TV, video & music for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No. Author/s. Title: subtitle [type of medium]. Title of album. Location: Publisher; Date of publication.

 

1.           Simon P. 50 ways to leave your lover [CD]. Still crazy after all these years: the greatest hits of Paul Simon. San Francisco: CBS Digital, 2010.

Radio programs 

 

The following is the general format of a reference to a radio program.

See the general rules for Film, TV, and other AV materials for more details. 

 

Reference list entry: format and example

 

Citation No. Author/s. Title: subtitle [radio broadcast]. Title of radio program. Location: Broadcaster; Date of broadcast.

 

1.           Goetze E. Drought, heatwaves impacting supply of local produce [radio broadcast]. AM. Sydney: ABC Radio Sydney; 2020 Feb 4.

2.           Duffy C. Paternity leave could help close gender pay gap [radio broadcast on the Internet]. AM. Sydney: ABC Radio Sydney; 2020 Feb 4 [cited 2020 Feb 5]. Available from: https://www.abc.net.au/radio/sydney/programs/am/paternity-leave-could-help-close-gender-pay-gap/11927004

Quoting from film, TV and AV media

 

To cite a specific part or direct quote from an audio or video content, you need to use the timestamp in the format of Hours:Minutes:Seconds.  

Check the time that the quote starts on the audio or video, and cite that in the in-text citation, e.g.1:13:20.  Here the 1:13:20 refers to 1 hour 13 minutes 20 seconds into the film, where the quote we want starts.

  • Hours/minutes/seconds follows the pattern H:MM:SS
  • Minutes/seconds follows the pattern MM:SS
  • Where you are only using seconds (e.g. for a short clip), use a zero at the front, e.g. 0:39 for 39 seconds.

For example, ... to close gender pay gap.2 (1:22)

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