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Harvard UON Referencing Style:  Reference list

UON Library guide to the Australian Harvard Style based on the online Style Manual: the standard for Australian Government writing and editing 2020.

Reference List - General Rules


Harvard style features parenthetical in-text citations, and a corresponding alphabetical reference list at the end of the document. The reference list provides the full details of the sources cited in the text of your paper. See an example via the tab above.


Reference list

  • Start a reference list on a new page titled References after any appendices but before an index.

  • Start each reference with a new line, no indentation.

  • List the references in alphabetical order by the Author name or title if there is no author.

  • Ignore the initial words of "A", "An", and "The" when alphabetising by title.

  • Sources cited in text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. 

  • A reference list entry lists the author, year, title, and facts of publication, in that order. 



  • For personal authors, enter surname (family or last name) first, followed by their initials, eg Smith AB

  • For corporate authors, use the abbreviation followed by the full name in brackets, eg DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) 

  • Organisations change names over time, use the name that appears on the source. 

  • For multiple authors, include all of the authors’ names in a reference list and add an 'and' before the last author, do not use “&”. 

  • Noun forms such as editor, translator, and edition are abbreviated, but verb forms such as edited/translated by are spelled out in a reference list. 

  • For multiple works by the same author, replace the author name with 2 unspaced em dashes for works cited afterwards. Works should be listed in the order that they appear in the text. Eg 

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2014a) General social survey: summary results, Australia, ABS website, accessed 20 July 2019.

——(2014b) Australian social trends, ABS website, accessed 20 July 2019.

——(2014c)  Arts and culture in Australia: a statistical overview, ABS website, accessed 20 July 2019.



  • Titles are capitalised sentence-style, e.g. Introduction to politics. 
  • Titles of larger works (eg books and journals) are italicised.
  • Titles of smaller works (eg chapters, articles) or unpublished works are enclosed in quotation marks. 
  • Unless the source is behind a paywall, hyperlink the title of works available online. You don’t need to include the URL if the title is hyper linked.



  • Use full date for works of newspaper articles and social media post. 
  • When no date is available, use “n.d.” for the date, and include the access date to the reference.
  • For works accepted for publishing but not yet published, use 'in press' for the date element.
  • For unpublished reports, use the word ‘unpublished’ instead of the year in references.
  • Harvard requires access dates in the citations of web sources.


DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

  • If a DOI is available for your source, include the DOI at the end of the reference, eg

Kelleher T (2009) ‘Conversational voice’, Journal of Communication, 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x.


Hyperlink Title or URL

  • If an online item does not have a DOI assigned, hyperlink the title using the URL if the item is available freely on the web, eg

eSafety Commissioner (n.d.) eSafety [website], accessed 3 December 2020. 

  • If the document is print only, include a URL after the reference. Put the URL after the final full stop, eg

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2018) Fact sheets for countries and regions – India, DFAT, accessed 9 July 2021.

  • We don't recommend adding database names in the citations for sources located from library databases.


Secondary Sources

  • Use the original work wherever possible. Use the secondary sources only when it is impossible to obtain the original publication.
  • Include both the original and the secondary sources in the text, but cite only the secondary sources in the reference list.



Example Reference List


The reference list starts on a new page titled References. It is organised in alphabetical order by authors' surname or title if there is no author. Ignore the leading words "A", "An", or "The" when alphabetising by title.




ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) (10 May 2018) ‘The Australian writer who could be the next Nobel Prize winner’ [video]ABC News (Australia), YouTube, accessed 29 May 2019.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (n.d.) Microdata: work-related injuries, ABS, accessed 22 February 2022.

——(2014a) General social survey: summary results, Australia, ABS, accessed 20 July 2019.

——(2014b) Australian social trends, ABS, accessed 20 July 2019.

——(2014c) Arts and culture in Australia: a statistical overview, ABS, accessed 20 July 2019. 

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2019) ‘Australia’s welfare 2019 data insights’, Australia’s Welfare Series 14, catalogue number AUS 226, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 5 February 2020.

APSC (Australian Public Service Commission) (2021) ‘Author–date’, Australian Government Style Manual,, accessed 3 October 2021.

Australian House of Representatives (2000–01) Votes and Proceedings, 1:631.

Australian Senate (2000) Debates, S25:65.

Black F and Jacobsen N (4 February 2020) ACT has highest student participation and employment [media release], ACT Government, accessed 5 February 2020.

Carruthers P, Laurence S, Stich S and Templeton G (eds) (2005) The innate mind: structure and contents, Oxford University Press, New York.

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2018) Fact sheets for countries and regions – India, DFAT, accessed 9 July 2021.

Eades D (2013) Aboriginal ways of using English, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra.

Jackson D, Li X and Chandran P (2018) ‘Safety and equity’, Psychological Science Australia, 2(4):223–240.

Janke T (2021) True tracks: respecting Indigenous knowledge and culture, NewSouth Publishing, Sydney.

Kelleher T (2009) ‘Conversational voice’, Journal of Communication, 59(1):172-188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x.

Maddison S (2013) Australian public policy: theory and practice, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9781107255920.

Thomson Reuters Australia (n.d.) Table of abbreviations [PDF 94.35KB], Thomson Reuters Australia, accessed 20 January 2020.

White N and Jackson D (unpublished) Testing for EPO, Australian Sports Drug Agency, Australian Government, accessed 3 March 2020.


Abbreviations Used 


Abbreviations are used regularly in the reference list and in text citations. Where confusion may result, spell out the word instead.

  • Common academic abbreviations used in the references: 
    • The plurals of the noun abbreviations given here are formed through the addition of s (e.g. chs for chapters).
  Abbreviations   Full Term   Abbreviations   Full Term
          app   appendix















et al.

  and others








  no date



  • Shorten names for Australian states and territories and don’t use a full stop after the shortened forms. This rule applies to the initialisms (NSW, WA, ACT and NT), abbreviations (Vic and Tas) and the contraction (Qld).