Skip to Main Content
University of Newcastle Library Guides

AGLC4: Australian Guide to Legal Citation 4th edition:  Other Sources

UON library guide to AGLC4: Australian Guide to Legal Citation 4th edition

Citing Other Sources

Select a tab to view the general rules and examples for various other sources

Conference and Seminar Papers

 

General Rules:

  • Where a conference paper has been published in a journal or book, it should be cited as such
  • Ordinal numbers (eg 1st, 5th) of conferences should not be included
  • The geographical location of the conference should not be included, unless it forms part of the name of the relevant forum

The following is the general format of a reference to a conference paper.

See AGLC4 rule 7.2.4 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

 

Note Number AA Author, 'Title of Paper' (Conference Paper, Institution/Forum, Full Date) Pinpoint. 

1 Ian Mutton, 'Extra-Territoriality: A Case Study' (Conference Paper, International Trade Law Conference, 29 May 1997).

2 Jacqueline Campbell, 'When Family Law Meets Bankruptcy' (Seminar Paper, Law Institute of Victoria, 17 February 2015).

   

Bibliography: Format and example

 

Author, AA, 'Title of Paper' (Conference Paper, Institution/Forum, Full Date) 

Campbell, Jacqueline, 'When Family Law Meets Bankruptcy' (Seminar Paper, Law Institute of Victoria, 17 February 2015)

Mutton, Ian, 'Extra-Territoriality: A Case Study' (Conference Paper, International Trade Law Conference, 29 May 1997)

Films and Movies

 

General Rules:

  • Include version details if the cited item is not the standard version, eg 'Uncensored version'.
  • Pinpoint reference should be to a point in time or time span (rule 1.11.3–1.11.4)

The following is the general format of a reference to a film.

See AGLC4 rule 7.14 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

 

Note Number Film Title (Version Details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Year) Pinpoint. 

1 Blade Runner: The Final Cut (Ladd Company, 2007).

2 The Dark Knight (Warner Brothers Pictures, 2008) 0:54:58—0:55:11.

 

Bibliography: Format and example

 

Film Title (Version Details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Year)

Blade Runner: The Final Cut (Ladd Company, 2007)

The Dark Knight (Warner Brothers Pictures, 2008)

Press and Media Releases

 

General Rules:

  • Include the author and the body releasing the media release if they are different
  • Omit the body if it is the same as the author
  • Include a document number if it appears on the release
  • Include pinpoint references to page numbers and paragraphs (where appropriate)

The following is the general format of a reference to a press or media release.

See AGLC4 rule 7.4 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

 

Note Number AA Author, 'Title of Release' (Release Type Document Number, Body, Full Date) Pinpoint. 

1 Department of Defence (Cth), 'Highest East Timorese Honour for Army Officers' (Media Release MSPA 172/09, 22 May 2009) 

2 ASX, 'ASX Selects Distributed Ledger Technology to Replace CHESS' (Media Release, 7 December 2017) 1

   

Bibliography: Format and example

 

Author, AA, 'Title of Release' (Release Type Document Number, Body, Full Date)

ASX, 'ASX Selects Distributed Ledger Technology to Replace CHESS' (Media Release, 7 December 2017)

Department of Defence (Cth), 'Highest East Timorese Honour for Army Officers' (Media Release MSPA 172/09, 22 May 2009) 

Radio Segments and Podcasts

 

General Rules:

  • Podcast titles should appear as they do on the podcast listening platform

  • Pinpoint reference should be to a point in time or time span (rule 1.11.3–1.11.4)

  • Where referring to a whole series and not to a specific episode, the episode number should be omitted. The production details should be that of the first episode.

The following is the general format of a reference to a radio segment and a podcast.

See AGLC4 rule 7.14.4 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number 'Episode Title', Series Title (Version Details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Full Date) Pinpoint <URL>.

1 'Dan Drezner on "The Ideas Industry"', The Lawfare Podcast (Lawfare Institute, 17 June 2017) <https://www.lawfareblog.com/lawfare-podcast-ideas-industry>.

2 'Inventions: Who Owns Them?', The Law Report (ABC Radio National, 8 September 2009) <https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/inventions-who-owns-them/3126998>.

   

Bibliography: Format and example

'Episode Title', Series Title (Version Details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Full Date) <URL>

'Dan Drezner on "The Ideas Industry"', The Lawfare Podcast (Lawfare Institute, 17 June 2017) <https://www.lawfareblog.com/lawfare-podcast-ideas-industry>

'Inventions: Who Owns Them?', The Law Report (ABC Radio National, 8 September 2009) <https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/inventions-who-owns-them/3126998>

Twitter, Facebook and other social media contents

 

General Rules:

  • Username should appear as it does on the Social Media Platform (ie capitalisation should not be altered)

  • Twitter usernames should include the '@'

  • Include the Twitter Post's author's name in parenthesis after the username, if this is not clear from the username

  • Omit the title element if a social media post does not have a title

  • Include Time and time zone if there are multiple posts within the same day

  • URL should be included after the first reference to a source in accordance with rules 4.4-4.5

The following is the general format of a reference to a social media content.

See AGLC4 rule 7.16 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number Username, 'Title' (Social Media Platform, Full Date, Time) Pinpoint <URL>. 

1 'Khan Academy (Facebook, 3 September 2014, 1:10am AEST) <https://www.facebook.com/khanacademy/posts/10152674247853442>.

2 chapteriiibestbits (instagram, 21 July 2016 AEST) <https://www.instagram.com/p/BIICBevgk31>.

3 @s_m_stephenson (Scott Stephenson) (Twitter, 17 July 2017, 9:37pm AEST) <https://twitter.com/s_m_stephenson/status/887169425551441921>, archived at <https:perma.cc/7A63-G2RT>.

   

Bibliography: Format and example

Username, 'Title' (Social Media Platform, Full Date, Time)

@s_m_stephenson (Scott Stephenson) (Twitter, 17 July 2017, 9:37pm AEST) <https://twitter.com/s_m_stephenson/status/887169425551441921>, archived at <https:perma.cc/7A63-G2RT>

chapteriiibestbits (instagram, 21 July 2016 AEST) <https://www.instagram.com/p/BIICBevgk31>

'Khan Academy (Facebook, 3 September 2014, 1:10am AEST) <https://www.facebook.com/khanacademy/posts/10152674247853442>

Speeches

 

General Rules:

  • If the speech is a named lecture, the lecture name should be included in the place of 'Speech' 

  • Ordinal numbers (e.g. 1st, 5th) of lecture series should not be included 

  • If a forum is specified, the city should not be included 

  • If no specific forum indicated, include the city in which the speech was delivered

The following is the general format of a reference to a speech.

See AGLC4 rule 7.3 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

 

Note Number AA Author, 'Title of Speech' (Speech, Institution/Forum, Full Date) Pinpoint. 

1 Virginia Bell, 'Section 80: The Great Constitutional Tautology' (Lucinda Lecture, Monash University, 24 October 2013).

   

Bibliography: Format and example

 

Author, AA, 'Title of Speech' (Speech, Institution/Forum, Full Date) 

Bell, Virginia, 'Section 80: The Great Constitutional Tautology' (Lucinda Lecture, Monash University, 24 October 2013)

ABS Statistics

 

The following is the general format of a reference to an ABS document. See details at AGLC4 Rule 7.1.5.

  • Use Australian Bureau of Statistics as the author
  • Include the catalogue number in the citation

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Title (Catalogue No, Day Month Year) Pinpoint.

1 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Corrective Services, Australia, September Quarter 2017 (Catalogue No 4512.0, 30 November 2017).

2 Australian Bureau of Statistics, International Merchandise Trade: Confidential Commodities List, Dec 2017 (Catalogue No 5372.0.55.001, 11 January 2018).

3 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Year Book Queensland, 1901 (Catalogue No 1301.3, 23 December 1901).

4 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016-17 (Catalogue No 3218.0, 24 April 2018).

5 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Statistics: Annual Report, 2016—17 (Catalogue No. 1001.0, 19 October 2017) 16—17.

Alternatively, footnote 5 can also be cited as report as below:

5 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Annual Report: 2016—17 (Report, 19 October 2017) 16—17.

 

Bibliography

Australian Bureau of Statistics. Title (Catalogue No, Day Month Year)

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Statistics: Annual Report, 2016—17 (Catalogue No. 1001.0, 19 October 2017)
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Corrective Services, Australia, September Quarter 2017 (Catalogue No 4512.0, 30 November 2017)
Australian Bureau of Statistics, International Merchandise Trade: Confidential Commodities List, Dec 2017 (Catalogue No 5372.0.55.001, 11 January 2018)
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016-17 (Catalogue No 3218.0, 24 April 2018)
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Year Book Queensland, 1901 (Catalogue No 1301.3, 23 December 1901)


The general format (i.e. NOT style specific) for referencing ABS publications is available online from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Theses and Dissertations

 

General Rules:

  • Where a thesis has been published in a journal or book, it should be cited as such
  • Use the degree for which the thesis was submitted as the document type
  • Include the name of the university only, without the school or faculty

The following is the general format of a reference to a thesis.

See AGLC4 rule 7.2.5 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

 

Note Number AA Author, 'Title of Thesis' (Degree Thesis, University, Year) Pinpoint. 

1 Antonio Kurt Esposito, 'The history of the Torrens System of Land Registration with Special Reference to Its German Origins' (LLM Thesis, The University of Adelaide, 2000).

   

Bibliography: Format and example

 

Author, AA, 'Title of Thesis' (Degree Thesis, University, Year) 

Esposito, Antonio Kurt, 'The history of the Torrens System of Land Registration with Special Reference to Its German Origins' (LLM Thesis, The University of Adelaide, 2000)

TV Series

 

General Rules:

  • Include version details if the cited item is not the standard version, eg 'Uncensored version'.
  • Pinpoint reference should be to a point in time or time span (rule 1.11.3–1.11.4)
  • If a TV series does not have an episode title, and is numbered by season and episode, cite it as 'Season Number, Episode Number'
  • Where referring to a whole series and not to a specific episode, the episode number should be omitted. The production details should be that of the first episode.

The following is the general format of a reference to a TV series.

See AGLC4 rule 7.14 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

   

Note Number 'Episode Title', TV Series Title (Version Details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Year) Pinpoint. 

1 'Season 9, Episode 10', Gruen (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2017).

2 'The Paradise Papers', Four Corners (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2017)  0:40:00—0:45:00.

'Indefensible', Making a Murderer (Netflix, 2015) 0:47:00—0:48:00.

 

Bibliography: Format and Example

'Episode Title', TV Series Title (Version Details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Year)

'Indefensible', Making a Murderer (Netflix, 2015)

'The Paradise Papers', Four Corners (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2017)

'Season 9, Episode 10', Gruen (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2017)

Internet Materials: Web Pages and Blogs

 

General Rules:

  • Include author only if indicated on the web page cited
  • Where the author and web page title are identical, omit the author element
  • Document types include 'Blog Post', 'Forum Post', etc. Where document type is unclear, use 'Web Page'
  • Include latest update date of web page. Use date of creation if no update date. Omit date element if no date available
  • Pinpoints are not usually included on web pages, otherwise, include pinpoint in square brackets

The following is the general format of a reference to a webpage and a blog post.

See AGLC4 rule 7.15 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number AA Author, 'Document Title', Web Page Title (Document Type, Full Date) Pinpoint <URL>. 

1 'James Edelman', High Court of Australia (Web Page) <http://www.hcourt.gov.au/justices/current/justice-james-edelman>.

2 Martin Clark, 'Koani v The Queen', Opinions on High (Blog Post, 18 October 2017) <https://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/opinionsonhigh/2017/10/18/koani-case-page/>, archived at <https://perma.cc/FD2P-M22L>.

   

Bibliography: Format and example

Author, AA, 'Document Title', Web Page Title (Document Type, Full Date) <URL> 

Clark, Martin, 'Koani v The Queen', Opinions on High (Blog Post, 18 October 2017) <https://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/opinionsonhigh/2017/10/18/koani-case-page/>, archived at <https://perma.cc/FD2P-M22L>

'James Edelman', High Court of Australia (Web Page) <http://www.hcourt.gov.au/justices/current/justice-james-edelman>

YouTube and Other Streaming Videos

 

General Rules:

  • Username should appear as it does on the YouTube Platform

  • Include the author's real name in parenthesis after the username, preceded by a space, if this is not clear from the username

  • Pinpoint reference should be to a point in time or time span (rule 1.11.3–1.11.4)

The following is the general format of a reference to a YouTube or other online video.

See AGLC4 rule 7.16 for more details. 

 

Footnote: Format and example

Note Number Username, 'Title' (Social Media Platform, Full Date) Pinpoint <URL>. 

Brooking Creative Labs, 'Is America Dreaming?: Understanding Social Mobility' (YouTube, 20 July 2015) 00:00:00—00:01:00 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vG6-UaBECN4>.

   

Bibliography: Format and example

Username, 'Title' (Social Media Platform, Full Date<URL>

Brooking Creative Labs, 'Is America Dreaming?: Understanding Social Mobility' (YouTube, 20 July 2015)  <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vG6-UaBECN4>