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University of Newcastle Library guides

Quick Guide to Referencing: Vancouver

A quick referencing guide for Pathways & Learning Support students or anyone interested in common referencing style basics

Vancouver referencing basics

Vancouver is a 'numbered' referencing style commonly used in the sciences and medicine. 

References include:

  • citations:
    • used to reference someone else's work within your writing
    • are indicated by the use of a number (see our examples - link below)
  • a reference list:
    • sequentially organised by a numbered list at the end of a document
    • provides full details of the corrsponding in-text reference

It follows rules established by the International committee of Medical Journal Editors, now maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It is also known as Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals.


When quoting or paraphrasing an author:

Emphasise the author in your citation as in the example below.

                             In her essay, Frankel1 asserts....

Emphasise the information in your citation as in the example below.

                             ... as evidenced by a qualitative study.2

Examples and videos