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University of Newcastle Library guides

Research Help for International Students: Referencing styles

Guide to assist international students find information for assignments.

Referencing styles

There are many different referencing styles and they vary between disciplines.  Your lecturer should specify which referencing style you are required to use for your course.

Whatever style you use, you must be consistent and format all your references in the SAME style.  See our Referencing Guide for the main referencing styles used at UON.


Let's look at the article 'Post-fire survival and reproduction of rehabilitated and unburnt koalas', from the database ScienceDirect.

Here is the same article referenced in a few different styles for comparison.

APA 6th APA example
Harvard Harvard example
Vancouver Vancouver example
Chicago (footnotes entry) Chicago footnotes example
Chicago (reference list entry) Chicago reference list example
MLA MLA example