Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Critical appraisal tools
Choosing an appraisal tool
Critical appraisal tools are designed to be used when reading and evaluating published research.
For best results, match the tool against the type of study you want to appraise. Some of the common critical appraisal tools are included here.
Appraisal tools and checklists
Reporting tools and checklists
STROBE Statement checklists
The STROBE checklists are designed for the reporting of observational (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) studies and can be applied to the critical appraisal of these types of study. Includes individual and mixed study checklists.
CONSORT 2010 Checklist
Checklist of information to include when reporting a randomised trial that can be applied to critical appraisal.
PRISMA 2009 Checklist
PRISMA is an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses that can provide guidance when assessing these pre-appraised publications.
Systematic review and bias tools
Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists
JBI offers a large number of appraisal checklists for both experimental and observational studies. Word and PDF versions of each are available.
Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool for studies
The Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool is taken from Chapter 8 of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and is used to assess bias in published studies.
ROBIS systematic review bias tool
Where the Cochrane tool above assesses bias in studies for inclusion in reviews, the ROBIS tool is used to assess bias in the systematic reviews themselves. Published as part of an article.