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University of Newcastle Library guides

APA 6th Style:  Health resources

UON Library guide for APA 6th

General Rules and Examples

Health resources

 

Looking for Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference?

 

For health resources such as:

 

The Library recommends referencing information from these online resources as electronic reference entries. You may find that some entries have authors and others don't - this will guide how the citation should look.

 

General guidelines:

  • List the title of the entry (or topic) as the first element in the reference if there is no author. Author information may be listed on the first page of the entry or under a section called 'Contributors' (or similar).
  • Include the year of the last update in brackets. If there is no update year listed, use the copyright year. This information may be included at the top or bottom of the screen.
  • Include the word 'In' followed by the title of the resource in italics (e.g. MIMS Online, etc).
  • Include the basic access URL after "Retrieved from". No access date is required for electronic reference entries.
  • Remove the university proxy information from the URL where possible [e.g. use http://bestpractice.bmj.com NOT http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezproxy.newcastle.edu.au]

 

The general format of a reference for a topic with an author is:

The general format of a reference for a topic without an author is:

 

Reference list examples:

 

 


In-text citations:

 

For entries with an author:

Follow standard practice:

(Author surname, Year)

 

For entries without an author:

Enclose the title of the topic in double quotation marks, followed by the year of publication, in the format:

(“First few words of the title”, Year)

Example:

...adjunct to diet in treatment of hypercholesterolaemia ("Lipitor", 2015).

 

 


 

Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference

 

Martindale can be accessed at UON either via Micromedex or via BMJ Best Practice - this will determine how to reference the entries.

 

Example from Micromedex:

 

Example from BMJ Best Practice (linked to MedicinesComplete):

 

In-text:

In-text referencing for either would be (Amlodipine, 2017)

 

Notes:
  • The title is moved to the front of the reference as there is no author noted.
  • The electronic version of Martindale does not specify which edition it is, relying on updates instead.
  • Use the last update date for the year.
  • Micromedex suggests to use Sweetman as the editor - this information is out of date.

 

 

Joanna Briggs Institute resources

 

General notes:

  • Always double-check the name and access details of the particular JBI database resource you're citing. Use the title of the database as found on the document where possible.
  • If a DOI is listed it should be used in the citation. See the What Are DOIs? page for more information.
  • Access to JBI resources at UON is provided via the database Ovid. Where a DOI is not available the access URL http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com should be included in the citation. If you are using JBI Connect to access JBI resources, replace the URL in the retrieval statement with http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org
  • For JBI critical appraisal tools, see the Critical Appraisal Tools tab.

 


Systematic Reviews and Protocols:

The general format for a reference list entry for a Joanna Briggs Institute systematic review or protocol is:

 

Reference list examples:

 

 


Best Practice Information Sheets:

 

The general format for a reference list entry for a Joanna Briggs Institute best practice information sheet is:

 

Reference list example:

 


Recommended Practices:

 

The general format for a reference list entry for a Joanna Briggs Institute evidence-based recommended practice is:

 

Reference list example:

 


Evidence Summary:

 

The general format for a reference list entry for a Joanna Briggs Institute evidence summary is:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article [JBI evidence summary]. Retrieved from http://ovid.tx.ovid.com

 

Reference list example:

Pamaiahgari, P. (2018). Hand hygiene in hospitals: Alcohol-based solutions [JBI evidence summaries]. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com. ‚Äč


Referencing help for other JBI resources can be found on the La Trobe Referencing Tool.

Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Protocols

 

General notes:

  • While the database is now known as Cochrane Library, citations should use Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews as the preferred source.
  • Cochrane Protocols should have the description [Protocol] added after the title.
  • The year is repeated as the 'volume'.
  • If a DOI is listed it should be used in the citation. See the What Are DOIs? page for more information.
  • See the Official APA Style Blog for more information on referencing Cochrane Reviews.

 

The general format for a reference list entry for a Cochrane Systematic Review is:

The general format for a reference list entry for a Cochrane Protocol is:

 

Reference list examples:

PROSPERO Systematic Review Protocols

 

PROSPERO is an international database of prospectively registered systematic reviews in health and social care. Key features from the review protocol are recorded and maintained as a permanent record. PROSPERO aims to provide a comprehensive listing of systematic reviews registered at inception to help avoid unplanned duplication and enable comparison of reported review methods with what was planned in the protocol. (Source)

 

General notes:

  • Information on this page is based on the formatting of Cochrane Reviews/Protocols, while also considering other APA standards to create a suitable citation. There are, as yet, no official APA guidelines for PROSPERO protocols.
  • Repeat the year as the 'volume' number. PROSPERO does not include issue information.
  • PROSPERO Protocols receive a DOI when complete. If a DOI is listed it should be used in the citation. See the What Are DOIs? page for more information.
  • PROSPERO resources include an individual item ID. APA states that these types of ID numbers are not required for the citation. The DOI or access URL also already includes this information.
  • PROSPERO also lists Cochrane Protocols, including their Cochrane Library link. It is recommended to access and cite the official protocol through Cochrane Library as this is the version of record.

 

The general format for a reference list entry for a PROSPERO Systematic Review Protocol is:

 

Reference list examples:

Critical Appraisal Tools

 

There are a number of critical appraisal tools that are designed to be used when reading and evaluating research and clinical studies. We have included examples of how to reference some of the common tools below.

For guidance on critical appraisal see our EBP for Undergrads guide.

 


Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists

 

The CASP checklists should be referenced as online documents. An example is provided below for the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) systematic review checklist.

General notes:

  • Note that the referencing information on this page for CASP Tools has changed due to CASP updating their site and checklists (April 2018).
  • The titles of the CASP checklists are provided on their download page.
  • As the title of each checklist is clear there is no need for a description in square brackets as with some online documents.
  • A retrieval date is not required.
  • Note that some information from CASP is embedded in the pages of their site (i.e. not as a downloadable document). If this information is cited, the reference would need to be done as a web page. 

 

Reference list entry:

 

In-text citation:

(Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, 2018)

Where more than one checklist is needed for referencing, refer to the information under Year/Date on the Reference list page of this guide.

 


Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists

 

The JBI checklists should be referenced as online documents. An example is provided below for the Checklist for Systematic Reviews.

General notes:

  • Use the full name of the organisation as the author, i.e. Joanna Briggs Institute, not JBI.
  • The title has been taken from the first page of the document (and not the download page).
  • As the title of each checklist is clear there is no need for a description in square brackets as with some online documents.
  • A retrieval date is not required.

 

Reference list entry:

 

In-text citation:

(Joanna Briggs Institute, 2017).

Where more than one checklist is needed for referencing, refer to the information under Year/Date on the Reference list page of this guide.

 


STROBE Statement checklists

While the STROBE checklists would normally be referenced as online documents, STROBE requests that specific references for articles published on the STROBE Statement are used rather than links from their website. The most recent article from the list is below.

 

Reference list entry:

 

In-text citation:

As the article above has 6 authors, a shortened in-text citation is used:

(von Elm et al., 2008)

 

The full list of acceptable STROBE articles can be found here.

 

PEDro scale

 

The PEDro scale should be referenced as an online document.

General notes:

  • As there is no author listed, the title (in italics) has been moved to the front of the reference (note the capitalisation).
  • While this is not as clear as some of the other checklists on this page, there probably isn't a need for a description of the document in square brackets after the title.
  • A retrieval date is not required.

 

Reference list entry:

 

In-text citation:

As there is no author, the italicised title is used for the citation:

(PEDro scale, 1999).

 


Downs & Black checklist for measuring study quality

 

The Downs & Black checklist is part of an article published in 1998, so should be referenced as a journal article.

 

Reference list entry:

 

In-text citation:

(Downs & Black, 1998)

 


Cochrane Handbooks

 

The Cochrane Handbooks are produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, famous for their systematic reviews. Each handbook has editors, with chapters written by differing authors. Citing from these handbooks should then be done as for a chapter from an edited ebook. The Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool is taken from Chapter 8 in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, included in the reference examples below.

 

Reference list entries:

Note that the above handbooks do not have standard page numbering so pages have not been included in the references.

 

In-text citation:

(Higgins, Altman & Sterne, 2011)

As the second reference has 6 authors, the shortened style is used:

(Reitsma et al., 2009)

Documents from intranet locations

 

Electronic documents viewed while on placement or at work may only be available via a secured intranet or staff-only network location. APA suggests considering the readership of the document you're writing before referencing this material.

The Library recommends that guidance is sought from lecturers or colleagues to see which of the options below is best for your situation.

Note that the examples listed below are for illustration purposes only and are not taken from actual documents.

 

Option 1:

Treat the document as if it were accessible online and provide the full details in the citation. You could then make note of the access limitations in-text near the citation.

General format:

In-text example:

HNE Health requires strict hand hygiene standards be adhered to in all hospital locations, as detailed in a best practice guide located on the staff intranet (HNE Health, 2015).

Reference list example:

 

Option 2:

As the resource is not publicly available you could treat the document as an irretrievable Personal Communication, which would mean citing the material in-text only.

In-text example:

It is suggested in the staff-only pamphlet 'Avoiding Patient Issues' that ... (HNE Health, intranet document, May 5, 2014).

Reference list example:

No entry needed.

 

A third option is suggested by the University of Portsmouth (UK).

Option 3:

General format:

In-text example:

(Author, Year)

Reference list examples:

Difficult-to-reference textbooks

 

For advice on how to reference chapters from difficult textbooks such as:

  • Kozier and Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing (Australian Edition) [catalogue link] and 
  • Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking for Person-Centred Care (Australian Edition) [catalogue link]
  • Smeltzer & Bare’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing (Third Edition) [catalogue link]

see the Book chapters page for more information.

 

For other textbooks with clear authors or editors see the information on the pages for Books & ebooks and/or Book chapters.

Pamphlets and brochures (print)

 

General notes:

  • Pamphlet versus Brochure? Pamphlets are usually a single page that has been folded, whereas brochures are multiple pages that have been bound with staples, glue, etc.
  • No date listed? Use (n.d.) as a substitute. See the examples below.
  • Author and publisher the same? Replace the publisher's name with 'Author'. See the examples below.
  • Can't find a place of publication? Look up the author / organisation's website to get the location of their head office - add this for the place in square brackets. See the examples below.
  • Multiple organisational authors? Separate authors with a comma and use an ampersand (&) before the last author - do not use the word 'and'. In a reference list, the word 'and' should only used as part of an organisation's name, not to list authors. See the last example below. For information on using 'and' or '&' for in-text citations, see this page.
  • If your pamphlet or brochure has people listed as authors instead of an organisation, follow the standard naming patterns (e.g. Author, A., & Author, B. ...) and include the proper publisher name.
  • For pamphlets and brochures found online, refer to the Web resources page.

 

The general format for a reference to a brochure or pamphlet is:

 

Reference list examples:

 

NSW Health forms and screening checklists

 

General notes:

  • NSW Health makes a large number of patient forms and screening checklists available online.  These can be referenced in a similar way to other online documents written by a corporate author.
  • Most will not include a year (the '2012' noted on the left-hand side refers to the Australian Standard for hole-punching that is being quoted: "Holes Punched as per AS2828.1: 2012").
  • Titles can usually be located towards the top-left of each document.
  • Add the document number in brackets after the title (remove italics from this part).  You can find this in the bottom-right corner of the first page.
  • A retrieval date is not required.

 

Reference list entry:

 

In-text citation:

(NSW Health, n.d.)

 

Where more than one form/checklist is needed for referencing, refer to the information under Year/Date on the Reference list page of this guide (reference examples provided below).

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