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University of Newcastle Library guides

APA 6th Style:  In-text Citations

UON Library guide for APA 6th

Examples

In-text citations with 1 author

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source. The general format for a source that has 1 author is:

 

(Author's surname, Year)

Australian education providers will need to address a number of challenges to ensure standards of special education are fully supporting students with special needs and their families (Dempsey, 2012).

In-text citations with 2 authors

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source. If the source has 2 authors the general format for each in-text citation to that source is:

 

(1st Author's surname & 2nd Authors's surname, Year)

...new technologies need to be evaluated before large scale investment is made by organisations (Marra & Edmond, 2014).

Please note: The "and" in Smith and Wexwood is written as an ampersand (&) inside parentheses and as the word and outside of parentheses.

In-text citations with 3-5 authors

 

First Citation to a Source

If the source has 3-5 authors include all authors names within the in-text citation the first time the source is cited, in the format:

(1st Author's surname, 2nd Author's surname, 3rd Author's surname, & 4th Author's surname, Year)

Example:

... as described in a case series on manual therapy and exercise treatment for patients with hip osteoarthritis (McDonald, Whitman, Cleland, Smith, & Hoeksma, 2006).

Please note: The "and" in Smith and Wexwood is written as an ampersand (&) inside parentheses and as the word and outside of parentheses.

 

Second and Subsequent Citations to a Source

In subsequent in-text citations, include just the first author's surname followed by et al.:

(1st Author's surname et al., Year)

Example:

... techniques including visual observations during ambulation on a flat surface (McDonald et al., 2014).

If a source has 6 or more authors, all in-text citations must include the first author's surname followed by et al.:

(1st Author's surname et al., Year)

Example:

... comparison and sampling based on the grounded theory model formed the basis for data analysis (Endacott et al., 2014).

 

 

In-text citations with 6 or more authors

 

If a source has 6 or more authors, cite only the first author's surname followed by et al.:

(1st Author's surname et al., Year)

Example:

... comparison and sampling based on the grounded theory model formed the basis for data analysis (Endacott et al., 2004).

Jorm et al. argue "the key areas for action are prevention and early intervention with first-onset disorders" (2006, p. 4).

 

In-text citations where the author is unknown

 

If the source has no author, include in-text the first few words of the reference list entry and the year of publication.

 

Journal articles, book chapters, web pages:

If the source is a smaller part of a larger whole, e.g. journal articles, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, or web pages, enclose the title in double quotation marks, in the format:

("first few words of the title", Year)

Example:

... reports that the first stage of labour is significantly shorter ("Giving birth", 2009).

 

Books, brochures, reports:

If the source is a book, brochure or report italicise the title, in the format:

(First few words of the title, Year)

Example:

... as suggested by theory-guided evidence-based practice (Source book of human anatomy, 2010).

In-text citations for corporate authors

 

If the source is a corporate author (eg. a university, association, or government department) include the corporate author's name within the in-text citation, plus the year of publication, in the format:

(Corporate Author, Year)

Example:

... thousands of teachers, principals, early childhood workers and academics have graduated and gone on to make their mark in and out of the classroom in communities (University of Newcastle, 2009).

 

If an author's name is known by a common acronym (eg. ABS  for Australian Bureau of Statistics, AIHW for Australian Institute for Health and Welfare), include the full name, plus the acronym in the first in-text citation, in the format:

(Corporate Author (CA), Year)

Example:

"Over half of people aged 15 years and older (56%) considered their overall health to be very good or excellent, and 29% stated that their health was good" (Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2009, p. 3).

In subsequent references, include just the acronym:

(CA, Year)

Example:
... 19% of people aged 18 years and over were current daily smokers (ABS, 2009).

In-text citations for works by authors with the same surname

 

Whenever you reference works by authors who SHARE the SAME SURNAME, but who are in fact different people:

  • Add the first initials of the lead (first) author to the in-text citation to identify the specific reference.
  • Do this for all instances of the reference.
  • This pattern should be followed even if the year of publication is different.
  • Note that this should be done for the lead (first) author only.
  • If you have multiple references where the lead (first) authors share the same surname and first initial, include the authors full name in square brackets after their initial in the reference list (e.g. Smith, R. [Robert]. (2014). Locating the correct ...) and include their first and last names for the in-text citation, e.g. (Robert Smith, 2014).

 

Adding the initial to the author names helps readers avoid confusion with the in-text referencing and allows easier location of entries in your reference list.

 

The examples below are taken from the official APA Style Blog:

 

Reference list examples:

Here we have two articles written by two different authors with the same surname, Campbell:

 

In-text citations:

As the above examples have 3 authors the in-text citations will follow the required pattern for that number of authors.

First in-text citation:

Some studies (A. Campbell, Muncer, & Gorman, 1993; W. K. Campbell, Bush, & Brunell, 2005) have shown …

Subsequent citations:

Both A. Campbell et al. (1993) and W. K. Campbell et al. (2005) provided participants with …

In-text citations for works with the same author/s and year

 

Whenever you reference more than a single (i.e. one) work by EXACTLY the SAME author (or exactly the SAME group of authors whose names are listed in exactly the same order) and published in the SAME year.

[Note with groups of authors that if the lead author is the same but the order (or authors included) changes, the pattern below cannot be used. See more on the next tab on this page.]

Where the authors/s and year are the same:

  • arrange these sources in the Reference List alphabetically by author/s and then title;
  • assign letter suffixes in lower case (a, b, c, d ...) to the Year in the order that sources are in the Reference List.
  • Use the letter suffixes assigned in the Reference List to help distinguish the sources for your in-text referencing

Examples are shown below for:

  • EXACT SAME single(1) author & SAME Year
    • Brown 2012a, b, c examples.
  • EXACT SAME two(2) authors & SAME Year
    & EXACT SAME ORDER of AUTHORS NAMES
    • Gregson & Edwards 2009a, b examples.
  • EXACT SAME three(3) authors & SAME Year
    & EXACT SAME ORDER of AUTHORS NAMES
    • Ostler, Peters & Zu Tan Chang 2012a, b examples. Note that for subsequent uses, the in-text citations for 3-5 authors would change to (Ostler et al., 2012a) and (Ostler et al., 2012b).

Formatting of Works by the Same Author or authors published in the same year.

In-text citations for different groups of authors with the same lead author and year

It is common to find articles published by similar groups of authors on particular topics. In many cases these groups of authors will publish a number of articles in the same year. When the lead (first) author is different this is not an issue. Where the lead author is the same it can create an identification issue between sources for in-text referencing.

Where the authors listed in the group are exactly the same, in the same order in the same year, follow the pattern for 'Same Author/s and Same Year' (i.e. adding letters after the Year to distinguish the in-text citations).

Where the lead author is the same but the other authors are different (names or order) in the same year, this pattern is not suitable. To cite these kinds of references in-text, the citations must include enough extra authors to help differentiate the citations. Examples are shown below.

 

Reference list examples:

Both of these references have 6 authors. In normal circumstances (Silva et al., 2017) would be the standard formatting for either reference if it was by itself, but as we need to include both in the reference list we need to differentiate them in-text.

 

Incorrect In-text:

(Silva et al., 2017a)

(Silva et al., 2017b)

Correct In-text:

(Silva, Kurappu, et al., 2017)

(Silva, Maduwage, et al., 2017)

We need to include as many authors in the citations as possible to help differentiate the references in-text. Do this for as many authors as needed to make the citations distinctive. See the official APA Blog for more information.

 

In-text citations for secondary sources

 

Sources cited within another source are known as 'secondary sources'. In-text citations to secondary sources must name the original source, and also provide a citation for the secondary source. 

As an example of a secondary source is provided here:

In our searching we find an article written by Featherstone in 1999 that has some information that would be useful to reference to provide historical perspective. The Featherstone article includes a quote from another article, written by Begley in 1990. If we cannot access the original Begley article, we could reference Begley as a secondary source:

... research has been conducted studying the falling PPH rates in the third stage (Begley, as cited in Featherstone, 1999)

or,

Begley’s study (as cited in Featherstone, 1999) ...

By following this pattern we are crediting the original author while being able to reference the source we are actually using.

For more information see the page on Secondary sources.

In-text citations that include multiple references

 

More than one publication

If you need to cite more than one publication within an in-text citation, include each source alphabetically separating each citation with a colon. For example:

...several reviews (Featherstone, 1999; Gates, 2010; Muldoon, 2008) have found that...

 

Two or more publications by the same author

If you need to cite two or more publications by the same author, list by year of publication, earliest year first. Separate each year with a comma.

For example:

...found that participants were negatively affected (Smith, 2003, 2005)...

 

Same author with the same publication date

Identify works by the same author with the same publication date by adding a suffix (a, b, c, etc) after the year. Ensure that the corresponding reference list entries are assigned the same suffix.

For example:

(Keleher & Joss, 2007a, 2007b)

Paraphrasing

 

Paraphrasing means putting someone else's ideas into your own words. This helps to show that you have understood the source and are able to apply it within your assignment.

When paraphrasing a source it is not required to include page numbers in the in-text citation, however it may still be useful to include the page numbers if the paraphrased information is from a source such as a book where the reader may have difficulty locating the original information within the source.

While not officially required in APA, some lecturers at UON may ask you to include page numbers for all your in-text citations - check with your lecturer if this is the case for their class.

Direct quotations

 

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word, from another source the in-text citation must include the author, year and page numbers where the quotation appeared.

Direct quotations must be accurate and follow the wording, spelling and punctuation of the original source.

The general format of an in-text citation to a direct quotation is:

Variations will occur depending on the number of authors. (See examples below)

 

Direct Quotations - 1 author

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from a source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears;

(Author's surname, Year, p. xxx)

“These films absorb, through a collage of images, traces of the Italian inheritance of neo-realist cinema” (Acciari, 2014, p. 14).

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Acciari, 2014, p. 14), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Wessel, 2015, pp.53-54).

 

Direct Quotations - 2 authors

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from another source which has 2 authors, the general format of the in-text citation appears;

(1st Author's surname & 2nd Authors's surname, Year, p.xxx)

..."the convergence of media means that the dichotomy between old and new media economies is hard to maintain" (Gorton & Garde-Hansen, 2013, p. 298).


NOTE: Use
"p"when quoting from one page - for example (Smith & Brown, 2010, p. 110), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Smith & Brown, 2010, pp. 134-135).

 

Direct Quotations - 3-5 authors

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from another source which has 3-5 authors, the general format of the in-text citation appears as;

First usage in-text usage:

(1st Author's surname, 2nd Author's surname, 3rd Author's surname, 4th Author's surname, 5th Author's surname, Year, p. XX)

Example:

Technology is an "ever-growing medium" within the classroom (Sanders, Park, Stanley, Cox, & Drake, 2013, p. 85). While it is true that ...

Any subsequent use of the same resource would then be:

(1st author's surname et al., Year, p. XX)

Example:

... Sanders et al. (2013, p. 92) reported a "direct proportional increase" in the understanding of these new technologies in a classroom setting.

 

Direct Quotations - 6+ authors

If a source has 6 or more authors, cite only the first author's surname followed by et al. for the first and subsequent citations.

(1st Author's surname et al., Year)

Example:

..."NS-RPLND has been suggested as an alternative for patients reluctant to receive chemotherapy or undergo regular surveillance, the latter being psychologically stressful" (Kopp et al., 2014, p. 646).

Kopp et al. (2014, p. 720) have recommended "ongoing support for patients and families"...
 


Quotations under 40 words:

Quotations of less than 40 words should form part of your text, and be enclosed in double quotation marks.

Example:

..."Historically, nursing competence has long been associated with the more technical aspect of function" (Axley, 2014, p. 218).

 

Quotations over 40 words:

Quotations of 40 words or more should not be enclosed in quotation marks. Instead, set the quotation apart - starting on a new line, indenting the quote.

Example

Omitting words from a quotation:

A quotation may be shortened from that included in the original source by including three spaced ellipses points (...) within the quotation to indicate where the omitted words had been included.

Example

Whereas, other researchers "believe that the third stage of labour is a much neglected stage in the process of labour ... and it deserves much greater attention" (Harris & Clark, 2011, p. 856).

 

Quotations of sources without pagination:

Page 171-172 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provides the following advice in relation to crediting direct quotations of sources without pagination:

If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers, precede with "para".

Example:

Johnson and Brown (2012) suggest "that all powerful positions in organizations display similar traits" (para. 12).

 

If the source includes headings, but not paragraph or page numbers, include the heading and the number of the paragraph following it.

Example:

James (2012) concludes "bullying is at epidemic levels in organizations which do not display strong leadership at the top" (Discussion section, para. 3).

 

Errors in original sources

Errors in the original source may be identified within a quotation by including the word (sic) in italics and brackets immediately after the error. This shows the reader that the error was in the original source, not in your usage of it.

Using brackets correctly in APA

 

Confused about which style of brackets to use?

Both rounded and square brackets are used in APA, but their usage is strictly controlled.

For information on which style of brackets is suitable for your needs, see this online guide.

Choosing between 'and' or '&' for in-text quotations

 

Basic In-Text Citation Style

As the name authordate system implies, APA Style in-text citations include the author and date, either both inside parentheses or with the author names in running text and the date in parentheses. Here are two examples: 

  • After the intervention, children increased in the number of books read per week (Smith & Wexwood, 2010). 
  • Smith and Wexwood (2010) reported that after the intervention, children increased in the number of books read per week. 

The "and" in Smith and Wexwood is written as an ampersand ('&') inside parentheses and as a word ('and') outside of parentheses, as shown in the examples above.

 

Multiple In-Text Citations

When multiple studies support what you have to say, you can include multiple citations inside the same set of parentheses. Within parentheses, alphabetize the studies as they would appear in the reference list and separate them by semicolons. In running text, you can address studies in whatever order you wish. Here are two examples: 

  • Studies of reading in childhood have produced mixed results (Albright, Wayne, & Fortinbras, 2004; Gibson, 2011; Smith & Wexwood, 2010).
  • Smith and Wexwood (2010) reported an increase in the number of books read, whereas Gibson (2011) reported a decrease. Albright, Wayne, and Fortinbras (2004) found no significant results. 

Same single reference used over consecutive sentences

 

There may be times when you need to use the same reference multiple times in consecutive sentences (or even a whole a paragraph) where there are no other references to break up the in-text citations.

The official APA Style Blog has tips on how to vary your writing to remove referencing redundancies so that you're not just writing (Author, Date) constantly in your text.

Note that their page for this case was designed as a learning example, so be sure to read the comments (such as this one) rather than just looking at the text in the green box (which is the redundant example).

Quotations

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