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University of Newcastle Library guides

APA 6th Style:  Book chapters

UON Library guide for APA 6th

General Rules and Examples

Book chapters

 

A note on citing chapters versus citing books:

 

For some books each chapter has an author listed and for others the whole work is written by the same author/s. If the chapter you want to use has a separate author, then cite the chapter you've read. You can cite multiple chapters you use from these books as separate entries in your reference list. Note that if the same author/s wrote the whole book (i.e. authors aren't listed for the individual chapters), then you should cite the book, not the chapter/s.

 

General rules:

Author Names

  • Appear first in the reference, surname first followed by a comma, then initials (do not include the full first names of authors).
  • Include all author names when a book chapter has up to 7 authors.
  • When authors number 8 or more, list the first 6 authors, insert three ellipses points (. . .), then add the last author.

Chapter Titles

  • The title of the chapter appears after the year of publication.

Editor Names

  • All editors names must be included (initials first then surnames). The abbreviation (Ed.), or (Eds.) is included after the last author.
  • For substantial works with a large editorial board,naming the lead editor followed by et al. is acceptable.

Book Titles

  • Capitalise the first word of the title and sub-title (and any proper nouns).
  • Book titles appear in italics.

Edition

  • Include details of the edition in brackets after the title, followed by a full-stop.
  • Editions should only be noted if 2nd ed. or above, if a special 1st edition (e.g. 1st Aust. ed.), or if the book has been otherwise updated or revised (e.g. Rev. ed., Updated 8th ed., etc). APA does not require a standard 1st ed. to be documented.
  • Remove any superscript from editions when typing - all letters should be on the same line (e.g. 2nd ed.).

Page Numbers

  • Page numbers for the chapter are included in brackets after the book title.

Place of Publication

  • Include the first place of publication, if more than one is listed.
  • For U.S. publications include the official state abbreviation after the city. This is also acceptable for Australian states and territories. For all other countries, spell out the name in full (e.g., New York, NY; Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.; Abingdon, England).

Publisher

  • Do not include terms such as "Inc", "Co", or "Pty Ltd".
  • Note that publisher information is not required for ebooks.

Layout and Spacing

  • All references cited in-text must appear in the Reference List, and vice versa.
  • Arrange Reference List entries in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the first author or by the title if there is no author.
  • If 2 or more entries are included in the Reference List by the same author(s), list them in chronological order with the earliest first.
  • The second and subsequent lines of each reference are indented.
  • Include a double-space between each entry in the Reference List.

References within books and chapters

 

In your research you will often encounter publications that refer to another researcher's work. This source within a source is known as a 'secondary source' and is referenced in a particular way.

Where possible, you should try to obtain the original work being referenced and read through the research to form your own opinions.

Often, however, it is impossible to obtain the original publication - it may be published in another language, or in a book or journal which is difficult to access.

In these circumstances, you are permitted to include a citation to the secondary source.

For more information on how to reference these resources see the page on Secondary sources.

Book chapters with 1 author

 

The general format of a reference to a book chapter with one author is:

 

Reference list examples:

 

 

In-text citations:

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source. This is the general format for a source that has 1 author:

 

(Author's surname, Year)

 

Example:

Generally, a competency model involves the achieving of learning outcomes and application of educational standards (Axley, 2008).

 

Direct Quotations:

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from another source which has 1 author, the general format of the in-text citation appears:

 

(Author's surname, Year, p. XX)

 

Example:

"Historically, nursing competence has long been associated with the more technical aspect of function" (Axley, 2008, p. 218)

 

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Axley, 2008, p. 218), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Smith, 2010, pp. 134-135).

Book chapters with 2 authors

 

The general format of a reference to a book chapter with 2 authors is:

 

Reference list examples:

 

In-text citations:

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source. This is the general format for a source that has 2 authors:

 

(1st author's surname & 2nd author's surname, Year)

 

Example:

... stress is also experienced by the carers themselves concerned about the future if they are unable to provide support (Bowey & McGlaughlin, 2007).

 

Direct Quotations:

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from another source which has 2 authors, the general format of the in-text citation appears as:

 

(1st author's surname & 2nd author's surname, Year, p. XX)

 

Example:

..."assessed the effectiveness of the massage by measuring the patient's vital signs, self reported anxiety and perceptions of pain" (Mok & Woo, 2004, p. 211).

 

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Smith & Brown, 2010, p. 110), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Smith & Brown, 2010, pp. 134-135).

Book chapters with 3-7 authors

 

The general format of a reference to a book chapter with 3-7 authors is:

 

Reference list examples:

 

In-text citations for 3-5 authors:

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source. For 3-5 authors in-text citations are divided into rules for the first use and then any subsequent use as shown below.

 

First use of a source

If the source has 3-5 authors include all authors names within the in-text citation the first time the source is cited, in the format:

 

(1st Author's surname, 2nd Author's surname, 3rd Author's surname, 4th Author's surname, 5th Author's surname, Year)

 

Example:

... as described in a case series on manual therapy and exercise treatment for patients with hip osteoarthritis (McDonald, Whitman, Cleland, Smith, & Hoeksma, 2010)

 

Second and Subsequent Citations to a Source

In subsequent in-text citations, include just the first author's surname followed by "et al. ":

 

(1st Author's surname et al., Year)

 

Example:

... techniques including visual observations during ambulation on a flat surface (McDonald et al., 2014)

 

Direct Quotations for 3-5 authors:

 

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from another source which has 3-5 authors, the general format of the in-text citation appears as:

First usage in-text usage:

(1st Author's surname, 2nd Author's surname, 3rd Author's surname, 4th Author's surname, 5th Author's surname, Year, p. XX)

Any subsequent use of the same resource would then be:

(1st author's surname et al., Year, p. XX)

 

Example:

Technology is an "ever-growing medium" (Sanders, Park, Stanley, Cox, & Drake, 2013, p. 85) within the classroom . While it is true that ...

... Sanders et al. (2013)  reported a "direct proportional increase" (p. 92) in the understanding of these new technologies in a classroom setting.

 

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Jorm et al., 2013, p. 4), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Jorm et al., 2013, pp. 21-22).

In-text citations for 6 or more authors:

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source. This is the general format for a source that has 6 or more authors:

 

(1st author's surname et al., Year)

 

Example:

... comparison and sampling based on the grounded theory model formed the basis for data analysis (Endacott et al., 2004)

 

Direct Quotations for 6 or more authors:

 

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from another source which has 6 or more authors, the general format of the in-text citation appears as:

 

(1st author's surname et al., Year, p. XX)

 

Example:

... "NS-RPLND has been suggested as an alternative for patients reluctant to receive chemotherapy or undergo regular surveillance, the latter being psychologically stressful" (Kopp et al., 2011, p. 646).

 

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Jorm et al., 2013, p. 4), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Jorm et al., 2013, pp. 21-22).

Book chapters with 8+ authors

 

Looking for Kozier and Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing (Australian edition)? Don't reference the whole book - reference the individual chapters using the authors listed on each one - see this page for more information.

 

The general format of a reference to a print book chapter with 8 or more authors is:

 

Reference list examples:

 

In-text citations:

Every time you paraphrase, or use an idea from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source. This is the general format for a source that has 6 or more authors:

 

(1st author's surname et al., Year)

 

Example:

... comparison and sampling based on the grounded theory model formed the basis for data analysis (Endacott et al., 2004)

 

Direct Quotations:

 

If you include a direct quote, that is word-for-word from another source which has 6 or more authors, the general format of the in-text citation appears as:

 

(1st author's surname et al., Year, p. XX)

 

Example:

... "NS-RPLND has been suggested as an alternative for patients reluctant to receive chemotherapy or undergo regular surveillance, the latter being psychologically stressful" (Kopp et al., 2011, p. 646).

 

NOTE: Use "p" when quoting from one page - for example (Jorm et al., 2013, p. 4), and "pp" when quoting from more than one page - for example (Jorm et al., 2013, p. 21-22).

Chapters from books with a large number of authors listed (instead of editors)

 

There has been an increase recently in the number of publications (especially Australasian editions) where multiple authors are listed on the cover that are not editors, but rather contributors to individual chapters. This means that each chapter will have separate authors listed, dictating how the references should be handled.

Note that if the same author/s wrote the whole book (i.e. authors aren't listed for the individual chapters), then you should cite the book, not the chapter/s.

 

A few examples of popular titles that fall into the authors-not-editors category are listed below:

  • Kozier and Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing (Australian Edition) [3 volume set]  [catalogue link]
  • Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking for Person-Centred Care (Australian Edition) [3 volume set]  [catalogue link]
  • Education, Change and Society  [catalogue link]

> For Smeltzer & Bare’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing (Third Edition) see the next section <

APA does not as yet have clear guidelines for referencing chapters from books such as these. The Library has consulted with APA experts and recommends the following patterns, based on the template for chapters from edited books.

 

For books by up to 7 authors:

 

For books by 8+ authors:

Include the first 6 authors, add '...' then list the final author.

 

Reference list examples:

 

The in-text citations for the above would only include the chapter author/s. As an example, the in-text citation for the chapter from 'Kozier and Erb's fundamentals of nursing' would be (Hales, 2018).

 


Chapters from other problematic texts

 

Smeltzer & Bare’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing (Third Edition) [catalogue link]

 

Notes for referencing:

  • Farrell and Dempsey are suggested as authors on the cover and elsewhere in the book but are listed as editors on the title page. Usually an edited book lists individual chapter authors - these volumes do not.
  • Although contributors are listed in the front of the book against chapter numbers, no authors are listed on the chapters themselves. This would suggest that their contributions were not great enough to be considered an ‘author’.
  • This Australian and New Zeland edition is actually based on the U.S.-published 12th edition of Brunner & Suddarth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, by Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle and Cheever. This further muddies the waters as to who the ‘authors’ of the content in the chapters are.
  • While the title page suggests this is the “Third Edition”, the official designation is “3rd Australian and New Zealand edition”, as shown on the verso page.

 

Recommendations:

There would be two potential options here:

1)  Reference as a standard book with Farrell and Dempsey as the authors (Vol. 1 used in example):

2) Reference as an edited book with Farrell and Dempsey as the editors (Vol. 2 used in example):

While number 2 would be the most technically correct, Farrell and Dempsey are referred to as authors (rather than editors) in multiple locations in the book, so number 1 may be the preferred option.

 

The in-text citation for either option would then be (Farrell & Dempsey, 2014)

eBook chapters with a DOI

 

eBook chapters follow the same author formatting patterns as those of physical books, the difference being that the physical publication information is removed to show the electronic access.

In the case of ebooks with a DOI the publication section of the citation is replaced by "doi:" and then the individual chapter's DOI, as shown below:

 

General guidelines:

  • Some ebooks do not include page numbers - in these cases, include a full-stop at the end of the title.
  • Chapters in ebooks will have their own individual DOI so where possible use the chapter DOI rather than the one for the whole book.
  • Do not include a full-stop after the DOI at the end of the reference.
  • eBooks do not require an access date.

 

Reference list examples:

eBook chapters with a URL

 

eBook chapters follow the same author formatting patterns as those of physical books, the difference being that the physical publication information is removed to show the electronic access. In the case of ebooks with a URL (i.e. without a DOI) the publication section of the citation is replaced by a retrieval statement, as shown below:

Example of a Book Chapter Reference List Entry

 

 

 

General guidelines:

  • Online books hosted on some platforms (e.g. Stat!Ref, Books@OVID) do not include page numbers - in these cases, include a full-stop at the end of the title (as shown in the 'Phillips' and 'Troiano' examples below).
  • If the book chapter was found in a database (for example, EBL or OVID), include the URL of the database homepage only (e.g. http://www.eblib.com).
  • Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break the URL before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.
  • eBooks do not require an access date.
  • Do not include the university's proxy information - keep the link simple.

 

Reference list examples:

Entries/chapters from reference works

 

Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.

 

General notes:

  • Reference works include dictionaries, encyclopaedias, thesaurii, handbooks, indexes, etc.
  • For health-related reference works such as AMH, MIMS, BMJ Best Practice, UpToDate, etc, see the specialist page.
  • The following examples are from electronic sources. For entries from print reference works, replace the DOI or URL statements with Publisher: Place of Publication, as with example chapters from print books. See the Reference list examples below for the pattern.
  • Include the year of the last update in brackets. If there is no update year listed, use the copyright year. This information may be included at the top or bottom of the screen.
  • If a DOI is assigned it should be included in the reference. Otherwise, include the basic access URL after "Retrieved from". No access date is required for electronic reference entries.
  • Remove the university proxy information from the URL [e.g. use http://www.oed.com NOT http://www.oed.com.ezproxy.newcastle.edu.au/]
  • For 'Research Starters' from the Library catalogue (NewCat+), see the next tab on this page.

 

The general format of a reference for a topic with an author is:

The general format of a reference for a topic without an author is:

 

Reference list examples:

 

 

In-text citations:

 

For entries with an author:

Follow standard practice:

(Author surname, Year)

 

For entries without an author:

Enclose the title of the topic in double quotation marks, followed by the year of publication, in the format:

(“First few words of the title”, Year)

Example:

...based on an fairy tale about three lucky Sri Lankan princes ("Serendipity", 2015).

'Research Starters' from the Library Catalogue

 

Be sure to check with your lecturer if these kinds of resources are suitable for use in your assignments.

 

Short 'articles' called 'Research Starters' can often be found in the Library catalogue (NewCat+) when searching for certain topics. If you use information from one of these Reference Starters, it should be referenced as you would any other source in your assignment. These are usually taken from sources such as encyclopaedias or other reference works. Therefore, the reference list entry would follow the same basic pattern:

Note

For this type of resource, APA requires the use of the home page of the publisher, not the link from the Library catalogue (NewCat+).

This will change for each Research Starter so you will need to Google the publisher/resource name to find the link for each one.

 

An example from a search results screen is shown below:

 

The source for the information will be included in the resource:

 

For this example, the publisher is Salem Press. Their home page is http://www.salempress.com/

Even though we accessed the Research Starter from the Library catalogue, we need to use the publisher home page link for the reference.

 

So for this resource the reference list entry would look like:

 

The in-text citation would then be:

(Vallente, 2016)

As Research Starters do not include page numbers, if you wished to include a direct quote you could count the paragraphs (common practice for web resources), for example:

According to Vallente (2016), clinical reasoning is "the application of critical thinking at the point of care" (para. 4).

Poems, epigrams and epigraphs

 

For the above short pieces, refer to the Other resources page.

Course Readers and Compiled Texts ('Custom Book Editions')

 

Course readers and compiled texts are usually collections of chapters and articles specifically chosen as readings for a particular subject.

To reference from these publications see the notes on the Course Material page.

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