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Critical appraisal tools
Choosing an appraisal tool
Critical appraisal tools are designed to be used when reading and evaluating published research.
For best results, match the tool against the type of study you want to appraise. Some of the common critical appraisal tools are included here.
Don't forget to reference any critical appraisal tools you use for your assignments or coursework. See the Referencing and EBP page for more.
Appraisal tools and checklists
Reporting tools and checklists
STROBE Statement checklists
The STROBE checklists are designed for the reporting of observational (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) studies and can be applied to the critical appraisal of these types of study. Includes individual and mixed study checklists.
CONSORT 2010 Checklist
Checklist of information to include when reporting a randomised trial that can be applied to critical appraisal.
PRISMA 2009 Checklist
PRISMA is an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses that can provide guidance when assessing these pre-appraised publications.
Systematic review and bias tools
Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists
In addition to appraisal checklists for studies, JBI also offers Word and PDF versions of a systematic review appraisal tool.
Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool for studies
The Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool is taken from Chapter 8 of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and is used to assess bias in published studies.
ROBIS systematic review bias tool
Where the Cochrane tool above assesses bias in studies for inclusion in reviews, the ROBIS tool is used to assess bias in the systematic reviews themselves. Published as part of an article.
You may also wish to read the following article:
Referencing appraisal tools
Any tools used to critically appraise published studies should be referenced appropriately in your document to show your usage of the tools and to provide attribution of the ideas used.
Examples for these tools are included in the referencing guides for:
- APA 7th Style (on the 'Health Resources' page, click on the 'Critical Appraisal Tools' tab)
- Vancouver (on the 'Health Resources' page, click on the 'Critical Appraisal Tools' tab)
For more information see Referencing and EBP.
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